An ideal, dilute Bose gas at very low temperature forms a

Bose-Einstein Condensate in which all particles are in the same ground state.

Muruganandam, "Matter wave switching in

Bose-Einstein condensates via intensity redistribution soliton interactions," Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol.

Ma, "Exact vortex solitons in a quasi-two-dimensional

Bose-Einstein condensate with spatially inhomogeneous cubic-quintic nonlinearity," Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics, vol.

Bose-Einstein condensate A state of matter that forms below a critical temperature in which all bosons (a type of subatomic particle) that comprise the matter fall into the same quantum state.

Domokos, "Self-organization of a

Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity," The European Physical Journal D, vol.

But, in 1995, the first

Bose-Einstein condensate was created by drastically cooling the atoms.

Dwornik et al., a comparative and comprehensive comparison of both the

Bose-Einstein Condensate and the Navarro-Frenk-White dark halo models with galactic rotation curves is performed.

"I would not say that the case is proven," he says, adding that the observed sound waves could have come from an artifact in the

Bose-Einstein condensate. "But it is probably the closest anyone has come." In 1981, Unruh proposed creating black holes in the lab but wrote at the time that detecting Hawking radiation "is an extremely slim possibility."

To observe and test them in the lab, the researchers created a quantum system - a magnetic field of a cloud of rubidium atoms in a state of matter known as a

Bose-Einstein condensate.

Among the topics are squeezing and entanglement in a

Bose-Einstein condensate, the stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to a primary clock, room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry, ultra-cold ytterbium atoms in optical lattices, and laser spectroscopy on relativistic ion beams.

Paper topics include spectral and scattering theory for magnetic Schrodinger operators; magnetic Pauli and Dirac operators; magnetic operators on manifolds; microlocal analysis of magnetic Hamiltonians; random Schrodinger operators and quantum Hall effect; Ginsburg-Landau equation, supraconductivity, magnetic bottles;

Bose-Einstein condensate, Gross-Pitaevski equation; and magnetic Lieb-Thirring inequalities, stability of matter.

In this paper a critical review on recent results concerning the generation of entangled states in quantum dot systems, the observation of their decoherence on a picosecond scale of time as well as the transfer of coherences from a quantum macroscopic state such as a

Bose-Einstein condensate to the light it emitts is presented.