Bose-Einstein condensate

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Related to Bose-Einstein condensate: plasma, Fermionic condensate


condensate, matter in the form of a gas of atoms, molecules, or elementary particles that have been so chilled that their motion is virtually halted and as a consequence they lose their separate identities and merge into a single entity. A Bose-Einstein condensate, the fifth state of matter, is formed at low temperatures when a significant number of the elementary particles classified as bosons (see Bose-Einstein statistics) collapse into the same quantum state. A similar condensate that consists of fermions (see Fermi-Dirac statistics) instead of bosons is known as a fermionic condensate, the sixth state of matter.

Such condensates were predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the system of quantum statistics formulated by the Indian mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose. Quantum theory asserts that atoms and other elementary particles can be thought of as waves. Einstein proposed that as atoms approach absolute zero (−273.15℃), the waves expand in inverse proportion to their momentum until they fall into the same quantum state and finally overlap, essentially behaving like a single atom. The phenomenon could not be observed, however, until techniques were developed to reduce temperatures to within 20 billionths of a degree above absolute zero. In 1995, Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman isolated a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate under laboratory conditions; they shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in physics with Wolfgang Ketterle for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.

A fermionic condensate is far more difficult to achieve because the Pauli exclusion principle prohibits two or more fermions from occupying the same quantum state. In 1957, John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer suggested that electrons, which are fermions, could form what are now known as Cooper pairs, which act like bosons; such pairings might make a fermionic condensate possible. Murray Holland much later suggested that fermions could pair up at higher temperatures by subjecting them to a magnetic field. In 2003, Deborah Jin and Rudolf Grimm were able to get fermionic atoms to bond together to form molecular bosons and thus form a Bose-Einstein condensate, but not a fermionic condensate. Later that year, applying a time-varying magnetic field to potassium atoms, Jin achieved Cooper pairings and the subsequent formation of a fermionic condensate.

It is believed that these state of matter have never existed naturally anywhere in the universe, since the low temperatures required for their existence cannot be found, even in outer space. Condensates may be useful in the study of superconductivity and superfluidity and in refining measurements of time and distance.

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Bose-Einstein condensate

[¦boz ¦īn‚stīn ′kan·dən‚sāt]
The state of matter of a gas of bosonic particles below a critical temperature such that a large number of particles occupy the ground state of the system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
An ideal, dilute Bose gas at very low temperature forms a Bose-Einstein Condensate in which all particles are in the same ground state.
Muruganandam, "Matter wave switching in Bose-Einstein condensates via intensity redistribution soliton interactions," Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol.
Ma, "Exact vortex solitons in a quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with spatially inhomogeneous cubic-quintic nonlinearity," Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics, vol.
Bose-Einstein condensate A state of matter that forms below a critical temperature in which all bosons (a type of subatomic particle) that comprise the matter fall into the same quantum state.
Domokos, "Self-organization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical cavity," The European Physical Journal D, vol.
But, in 1995, the first Bose-Einstein condensate was created by drastically cooling the atoms.
Dwornik et al., a comparative and comprehensive comparison of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate and the Navarro-Frenk-White dark halo models with galactic rotation curves is performed.
"I would not say that the case is proven," he says, adding that the observed sound waves could have come from an artifact in the Bose-Einstein condensate. "But it is probably the closest anyone has come." In 1981, Unruh proposed creating black holes in the lab but wrote at the time that detecting Hawking radiation "is an extremely slim possibility."
To observe and test them in the lab, the researchers created a quantum system - a magnetic field of a cloud of rubidium atoms in a state of matter known as a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Among the topics are squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate, the stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to a primary clock, room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry, ultra-cold ytterbium atoms in optical lattices, and laser spectroscopy on relativistic ion beams.
Paper topics include spectral and scattering theory for magnetic Schrodinger operators; magnetic Pauli and Dirac operators; magnetic operators on manifolds; microlocal analysis of magnetic Hamiltonians; random Schrodinger operators and quantum Hall effect; Ginsburg-Landau equation, supraconductivity, magnetic bottles; Bose-Einstein condensate, Gross-Pitaevski equation; and magnetic Lieb-Thirring inequalities, stability of matter.