The war in multi-ethnic Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was at different periods fought in various constellations of the three main actors (Bosniacs
, Croats, and Serbs), ended in 1995.
In 1991, there was 6.6% of Croats, 29.8% of Serbs and 49.2% of Bosniacs
Bosnian Muslims, ethnically identified as Bosniacs
, have long been neighbors with ethnic Serbs who are largely Orthodox Christian, predominantly Catholic Croats and other ethnic and religious minorities, such as Sephardic Jews, Albanians, Roma and others.
* Bosnia-Herzegovina is two entities - the Serb dominated Republika Srpska and the Federation in which Croats or Bosniacs
- Bosnian Muslims - are the majority
The Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina similarly provides that "Bosniacs
and Croats as constituent peoples ...
Where this lingering bitterness sought targets, they were easy to find: About 40 percent of the Bosnian population are Bosniacs
(Muslims), descended from a largely heretic Christian population whose relative openness to Islam allowed it to take root in BiH, (In Serbia and Croatia the Orthodox and Catholic church organizations remained more influential.) In Kosovo, now a semiautonomous province of Serbia, much of the population are Muslim ethnic Albanians.
Republika Srpska is a largely mono-ethnic entity as a result of the war (though some Croats and Bosniacs
remain, and about 10 percent of the Republika Srpska is non-Serb), as Bosniacs
living in that area before the war were driven out and as Serbs formerly living in what became the Federation fled and concentrated themselves in the Republika Srpska following the war.
The Federation, which consisted of Bosnian Croats and the Muslims (later known as Bosniacs
), was formed from two entities within the government structure that had previously fought with each other.
at 44 per cent are the largest ethnic grouping, followed by Serbs at 31 per cent and Croats at 17 per cent.
The 1992-1995 Bosnian war was, however, characterized by what many observers have argued to be genocide carried out by the Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat armies against the so-called Bosnian Muslims, or "Bosniacs
." (8) The violent logics of ethnic cleansing dominated the political imaginaries of those who sought either to intervene in or understand the conflict.
The town of Velika Kladusa by Camp Black Bear is populated primarily by Muslims, also known as Bosniacs
, and shows signs of ongoing reconstruction.