# boson

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## boson

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Boson

bose particle, a particle with zero or integral spin. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics (hence the designation of the particle). Bosons include light quanta, or photons (spin 1); quanta of the gravitational field (if such exist), or gravi-tons (spin 2); unstable elementary particles such as mesons and boson resonances; and also compound particles made up of an even number of fermions (particles of half-integral spin)—for example, atomic nuclei with an even total number of protons and neutrons (a deuteron, a 4He nucleus or alpha particle, and so on); and gas molecules. Bosons are also quasi-particles of integral (or zero) spin—for example, pho-nons in the solid state and in liquid 4He and excitons in semiconductors and dielectrics.

V. P. PAVLOV

## boson

[′bō‚sän]
(statistical mechanics)
A particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics; includes photons, pi mesons, and all nuclei having an even number of particles and all particles with integer spin.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## Higgs boson

The most elementary atomic particle discovered to date at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. With 99.9% certainty, the Higgs is said to be the particle that gives all other particles mass. It is smaller than all other particles but also heavier in atomic weight. Considered the glue of the universe, the Higgs is an invisible energy field that fills space.

The Higgs Is a Type of Boson
Named after Satyendra Nath Bose, a boson is a particle that shares quantum states and behaves collectively; for example, a photon is a boson. The Higgs is a type of boson that was postulated by three scientists in the 1960s: Peter Higgs, Francois Englert and Tom Kibble, all of whom were present in Geneva in 2012 when the discovery was officially announced. See quantum state and particle accelerator.

The God Particle Higgs is also called the "God Particle" after Leon Lederman's book, written two decades before it was finally observed. The book takes you through 2,500 years of physics with a sense of humor and an uncanny way of really teaching the subject.

## quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
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References in periodicals archive ?
On a superspace of dimension (m, 2n), we have m commuting (or bosonic) variables [x.sub.1], ..., [x.sub.m] and 2n anti-commuting (or fermionic) variables [mathematical expression not reproducible] subject to
New bosonic lasers emitting terahertz radiation could be fine-tuned to vary or minimise the power required by the laser or to alter the intensity of terahertz radiation.
The solution involves a non-minimal set of pure spinor variables, which in addition to [[lambda].sup.[alpha]] contains a bosonic conjugate spinor [[bar.[lambda]].sub.[alpha]] (which in Euclidean signature can be viewed as the complex conjugate of [[lambda].sup.[alpha]]) obeying ([bar.[lambda]][[gamma].sup.a][bar.[lambda]]) = 0 and a fermionic spinor [r.sub.[alpha]] with ([bar.[lambda]] [[gamma].sup.a]r) = 0.
US Global Holdings (OTCBB:GOHG) said it had bought Bosonic Industrial Corp, a newly created developer of green technologies, for an undisclosed sum.
Because of nonlinear interactions with the non-polar medium, bosonic electron pairs can congregate spatially at certain points of these "one-dimensional" fibers (breaking of the E (1) symmetry), and be excited into longitudinal oscillations along the fiber.
Attempts to do the same with molecules made of bosonic atoms failed, however, because collisions shattered those molecules before condensation could take place.
Beginning with dissipative geometry and general relativity theory, they consider such aspects as pseudo-Riemannian geometry and general relativity, metric waves in a non-stationary universe and dissipative oscillator, and bosonic and fermionic models of a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe.
Barberan, "Hall response of interacting bosonic atoms in strong gauge fields: from condensed to fractional-quantum-Hall states," Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol.
Duchamp, "Some useful combinatorial formulas for bosonic operators," Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol.
String Theory introduced in the dream opened to Bosonic String Theory.
Applying commutation relations for the bosonic annihilation and creation operators,

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