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see elementary particleselementary particles,
the most basic physical constituents of the universe. Basic Constituents of Matter

Molecules are built up from the atom, which is the basic unit of any chemical element. The atom in turn is made from the proton, neutron, and electron.
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; Bose-Einstein statisticsBose-Einstein statistics,
class of statistics that applies to elementary particles called bosons, which include the photon, pion, and the W and Z particles. Bosons have integral values of the quantum mechanical property called spin and are "gregarious" in the sense that an
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bose particle, a particle with zero or integral spin. Bosons obey Bose-Einstein statistics (hence the designation of the particle). Bosons include light quanta, or photons (spin 1); quanta of the gravitational field (if such exist), or gravi-tons (spin 2); unstable elementary particles such as mesons and boson resonances; and also compound particles made up of an even number of fermions (particles of half-integral spin)—for example, atomic nuclei with an even total number of protons and neutrons (a deuteron, a 4He nucleus or alpha particle, and so on); and gas molecules. Bosons are also quasi-particles of integral (or zero) spin—for example, pho-nons in the solid state and in liquid 4He and excitons in semiconductors and dielectrics.



(statistical mechanics)
A particle that obeys Bose-Einstein statistics; includes photons, pi mesons, and all nuclei having an even number of particles and all particles with integer spin.
References in periodicals archive ?
On a superspace of dimension (m, 2n), we have m commuting (or bosonic) variables [x.sub.1], ..., [x.sub.m] and 2n anti-commuting (or fermionic) variables [mathematical expression not reproducible] subject to
New bosonic lasers emitting terahertz radiation could be fine-tuned to vary or minimise the power required by the laser or to alter the intensity of terahertz radiation.
The solution involves a non-minimal set of pure spinor variables, which in addition to [[lambda].sup.[alpha]] contains a bosonic conjugate spinor [[bar.[lambda]].sub.[alpha]] (which in Euclidean signature can be viewed as the complex conjugate of [[lambda].sup.[alpha]]) obeying ([bar.[lambda]][[gamma].sup.a][bar.[lambda]]) = 0 and a fermionic spinor [r.sub.[alpha]] with ([bar.[lambda]] [[gamma].sup.a]r) = 0.
US Global Holdings (OTCBB:GOHG) said it had bought Bosonic Industrial Corp, a newly created developer of green technologies, for an undisclosed sum.
Because of nonlinear interactions with the non-polar medium, bosonic electron pairs can congregate spatially at certain points of these "one-dimensional" fibers (breaking of the E (1) symmetry), and be excited into longitudinal oscillations along the fiber.
Attempts to do the same with molecules made of bosonic atoms failed, however, because collisions shattered those molecules before condensation could take place.
The formalism has also been extended to bosonic systems with different kind of long-ranged repulsive interactions with very promising proof of principle results.
Beginning with dissipative geometry and general relativity theory, they consider such aspects as pseudo-Riemannian geometry and general relativity, metric waves in a non-stationary universe and dissipative oscillator, and bosonic and fermionic models of a Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe.
Barberan, "Hall response of interacting bosonic atoms in strong gauge fields: from condensed to fractional-quantum-Hall states," Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol.
Duchamp, "Some useful combinatorial formulas for bosonic operators," Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol.
String Theory introduced in the dream opened to Bosonic String Theory.
Applying commutation relations for the bosonic annihilation and creation operators,