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Bosphorus(–pərəs) [Gr.,=ox ford, in reference to the story of IoIo,
in Greek mythology, daughter of Inachus, king ofo Argos. She was loved by Zeus, who, to protect her from Hera's jealousy, changed her into a white heifer. Hera, however, was not deceived; she claimed the heifer and sent Argus to guard it.
..... Click the link for more information. ], Turk. Boğaziçi, strait, c.20 mi (30 km) long and c.2,100 ft (640 m) wide at its narrowest, separating European from Asian Turkey and joining the Black SeaBlack Sea,
inland sea, c.159,600 sq mi (413,360 sq km), between SE Europe and Asia, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. It is c.
..... Click the link for more information. with the Sea of MarmaraMarmara, Sea of,
or Sea of Marmora,
c.4,430 sq mi (11,474 sq km), NW Turkey, between Europe in the north and Asia in the south. The Sea of Marmara, c.175 mi (280 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide, is connected on the east with the Black Sea through the Bosporus and on
..... Click the link for more information. . İstanbulİstanbul
, city (1990 pop. 6,748,435) and metropolitan muncipality, capital of İstanbul prov., NW Turkey, on both sides of the Bosporus at its entrance into the Sea of Marmara. Since 2004 the metropolitan municipality and province have been coterminous.
..... Click the link for more information. straddles the Bosporus. At its narrowest point stand two famous castles: Anadolu Hisar (1390) on the Asian side and Rumeli Hisar (1452) on the European side. With the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
..... Click the link for more information. , the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean; it is thought to have been a dry riverbed as recently as 7,600 years ago. The July 15th Martyrs Bridge (formerly the Bosporus Bridge; a suspension bridge) opened in 1973. A second suspension bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, was completed in 1988, a railroad tunnel under the strait opened in 2013, and a third bridge, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, a hybrid cable-stayed suspension bridge, opened in 2016; all are in İstanbul. In 2011 the Turkish government proposed building a canal parallel to the Bosporus to reduce the shipping congestion in the strait.
(in Turkish, Karadeniz Boğazi; in Greek, Bósporos), a strait between Europe and the Asia Minor peninsula, connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. It is approximately 30 km long and 750 m to 3.7 km wide. It is an ancient river basin, submerged by the sea during the anthropogenic period. The shores are high and steep. There are convenient natural harbors; the best of these is the Golden Horn on the European shore, near the entrance of the Sea of Marmara. Here and on the opposite Asian shore, the city of Istanbul is located. The shallowest depth in the navigational channel is 33 m, and the greatest goes up to 80 m. The surface current in the Bosporus flows from north to south, transporting on the average 325 cubic (cu; km saline (18%o) Black Sea water annually; the subsurface current, approximately 175 cu km of saline water (38°/°°), flows from south to north, from the Sea of Marmara into the Black Sea. The water exchange in the Bosporus was first studied by the Russian oceanographer S. O. Makarov in 1881 and 1882.