In this section, we will calculate the spectra for the bound states of heavy quarks such as charmonium, bottomonium, and [B.sub.C] meson.

In the case of bottomonium [[??] = b[bar.b]], the rest mass equation is as follows.

Contributions include a biography of Wolfgang Panofsky, research on

bottomonium, the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments, axions, density functional theory and Fermi superfluids, fluid dynamics in relativistic collisions, supernovae, muonic hydrogen, CP violation in the Bs system, mixing angle evaluation of the Standard Model, liquid argon detectors, partonic structure of the proton, photodetectors in particle physics experimentation, supersymmetry, superheavy nuclei, electron-positron annihilation, two chapters on the Tevatron collider, two-neutrino double-beta decay, and lepton flavor-violation.

Zhao, "

Bottomonium continuous production from unequilibrium bottom quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions," Physics Letters B, vol.

That is why the interest may be shifted to the

bottomonium states at the LHC energy.

The discovery of

bottomonium (b[bar.b]) states were well described by the potential model picture which was used in the charmonium case.

Unlike the symmetric heavy quark bound states b[bar.b] (

bottomonium) and c[bar.c] (charmonium), [B.sub.c] meson is the lowest bound state of two heavy quarks (b and c) with different flavors and charge.

Many efforts have been devoted to calculating the mass spectra of charmonium and

bottomonium mesons and determining the binding energy and the dissociation temperatures of heavy quarkonia.

In [4, 34, 55], the authors calculated the mass spectra of quarkonium systems as charmonium and

bottomonium mesons with the quark-antiquark interaction potential using various methods in many works.

Thus, in [21], we had calculated the mass spectrum, weak decay constants, two-photon decay widths and two-gluon decay widths of ground (1S) and radially excited (2S, 3S, ...) states of pseudoscalar charmonium and

bottomonium such as [[eta].sub.c] and [[eta].sub.b] as well as the mass spectrum and leptonic decay constants of ground state (1S) and excited (2S, 1D, 3S, 2D, 4S, and 3D) states of vector charmonium and

bottomonium such as J/[psi] and [gamma], using this formulation of 4x4 Bethe-Salpeter equation under covariant instantaneous ansatz (CIA).

Kim et al., "S wave

bottomonium states moving in a quark-gluon plasma from lattice NRQCD," Journal of High Energy Physics, vol.

In particular, the calculation of

bottomonium masses [3], total widths, coupling constants [4-7], and branching ratio can serve as benchmarks for the low energy predictions of QCD.