Bougainville


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Bougainville

(bo͞o`gənvĭl, Fr. bo͞ogăNvēl`), volcanic island (1990 est. pop. 154,000), c.3,880 sq mi (10,050 sq km), SW Pacific, largest in the Solomon Islands chain. With Buka and smaller neighboring islands, it forms an autonomous region of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea
, officially Independent State of Papua New Guinea, independent Commonwealth nation (2005 est. pop. 5,545,000), 183,540 sq mi (475,369 sq km), SW Pacific.
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. Bougainville is rugged and densely forested. There are several good harbors, with the main port at Kieta. The economy is mainly agricultural; major exports are copra, ivory nuts, green snails, cocoa, tortoise shells, and trepang. Copper mining was important until 1989 when an insurrection closed down the mine. The center of administration is at Sohano, a coral island in the Buka Passage.

The island was explored in 1768 by the French navigator Louis de BougainvilleBougainville, Louis Antoine de
, 1729–1811, French navigator. He accompanied Montcalm to Canada as aide-de-camp, and he later (c.1764) established a colony on the Falkland Islands but had to surrender the settlement to Spain (1766).
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. Unlike the rest of the Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands,
independent Commonwealth nation (2009 pop. 515,870), c.15,500 sq mi (40,150 sq km), SW Pacific, E of New Guinea. The islands that constitute the nation of the Solomon Islands—Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, the Santa Cruz Islands, Choiseul, Ysabel
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, which became British territory, Bougainville and Buka became part of German New Guinea in 1884. Occupied by Australian forces during World War I, Bougainville was mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920. During World War II the island was the last Japanese stronghold in the Solomons. It became part of Papua New Guinea in 1973, despite strong secessionist sentiment. A bloody secessionist uprising, begun in the late 1980s and sparked by copper mining, persisted through much of the 1990s; in 1998 a cease-fire, monitored by Australian-led forces, went into effect. A peace accord granting Bougainville broad autonomy and promising a referendum on independence by 2020 was signed in 2001. Peacekeeping forces were replaced by a smaller transition team in 2003, a constitution was adopted in 2004, and a government was elected in 2005. The autonomous government has faced challenges from former fighters on both sides of the uprising, but negotiations have led to a number of peace agreements.

Bougainville

 

a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean; the largest of the Solomon Islands. Part of New Guinea, a protectorate of Australia. Area, 10, 000 sq km; population, 71, 700 (1966). The terrain is mountainous; there are elevations to 3, 123 m (Mount Balbi). Vegetation consists of tropical rain forests. Coconuts and bananas are cultivated. There are tin deposits on the island, and gold is mined there. The island is named after the French mariner L. A. de Bougainville.


Bougainville

 

a deep-water depression near the south-western foot of Bougainville Island (Solomon Islands) in the Pacific Ocean. Length, about 300 km; depth, to 9,140 m. It is connected to the New Britain depression on the northwest at an angle of about 70°. Bougainville is one of the few deep-water depressions situated on the inner side of the island arc rather than on the outer, or oceanic, side.

Bougainville

1
Louis Antoine de . 1729--1811, French navigator

Bougainville

2
an island in the W Pacific, in Papua New Guinea: the largest of the Solomon Islands: unilaterally declared independence in 1990; occupied by government troops in 1992, and granted autonomy in 2001. Chief town: Kieta. Area: 10 049 sq. km (3880 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Yet despite the backdrop of the bloody Bougainville Conflict, Mr Pip is ultimately about the power of fiction in transforming the lives of young people.
At least six strong tremors have hit near Bougainville in the past week or so, including a magnitude 7.
It was centred in the sea about 75km south-west of the town of Arawa on Bougainville, at a depth of about 50km, the USGS said.
Furthermore, the participating parties agreed that the Panguna mine would not be reopened and that, within the course of a few years, elections for an Autonomous Bougainville Government (ABG) should be held.
2-meter wave height was expected around midnight local time at the coastal village of Koiaris on Bougainville island, predicting a "low humanitarian impact" due to the magnitude and sparse population of the area.
Bougainville finished on 2,953 total pinfalls built mainly around the contributions of Faisal Relativo 595, Hassan Oraif 555 and Abdul Fatah Mugawan 533.
The 89-year-old former soldier was wounded in fighting near Hill 260 on Bougainville when he volunteered to go forward to check the perimeter wire.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: In 2007, the government of Papua New Guinea, along with the autonomous government of Bougainville, decided to resettle the 2,500 inhabitants of the Carteret atoll and neighboring atolls to the island of Bougainville.
The French explorer de Bougainville settled a colony at Port Louis, Berkeley Sound, in 1764.
Welch, served as a coxswain of a Higgins boat during the invasion of Bougainville in November 1943.
When the French navigator, Louis Bougainville, re-discovered Quiros' land after 162 years, he wrote 'la terre australe du Saint-Esprit' in his journal on 6 June 1768 (2).