Bougainville


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Bougainville

(bo͞o`gənvĭl, Fr. bo͞ogăNvēl`), volcanic island (1990 est. pop. 154,000), c.3,880 sq mi (10,050 sq km), SW Pacific, largest in the Solomon Islands chain. With Buka and smaller neighboring islands, it forms an autonomous region of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea
, officially Independent State of Papua New Guinea, independent Commonwealth nation (2015 est. pop. 6,672,000), 183,540 sq mi (475,369 sq km), SW Pacific.
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. Bougainville is rugged and densely forested. There are several good harbors, with the main port at Kieta. The economy is mainly agricultural; major exports are copra, ivory nuts, green snails, cocoa, tortoise shells, and trepang. Copper mining was important until 1989 when an insurrection closed down the mine. The center of administration is at Sohano, a coral island in the Buka Passage.

The island was explored in 1768 by the French navigator Louis de BougainvilleBougainville, Louis Antoine de
, 1729–1811, French navigator. He accompanied Montcalm to Canada as aide-de-camp, and he later (c.1764) established a colony on the Falkland Islands but had to surrender the settlement to Spain (1766).
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. Unlike the rest of the Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands,
independent Commonwealth nation (2015 est. pop. 587,000), c.15,500 sq mi (40,150 sq km), SW Pacific, E of New Guinea. The islands that constitute the nation of the Solomon Islands—Guadalcanal, Malaita, New Georgia, the Santa Cruz Islands, Choiseul, Ysabel
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, which became British territory, Bougainville and Buka became part of German New Guinea in 1884. Occupied by Australian forces during World War I, Bougainville was mandated to Australia by the League of Nations in 1920. During World War II the island was the last Japanese stronghold in the Solomons. It became part of Papua New Guinea in 1973, despite strong secessionist sentiment. A bloody secessionist uprising, begun in the late 1980s and sparked by copper mining, persisted through much of the 1990s; in 1998 a cease-fire, monitored by Australian-led forces, went into effect. A peace accord granting Bougainville broad autonomy and promising a referendum on independence by 2020 was signed in 2001. Peacekeeping forces were replaced by a smaller transition team in 2003, a constitution was adopted in 2004, and a government was elected in 2005. The autonomous government has faced challenges from former fighters on both sides of the uprising, but negotiations have led to a number of peace agreements.

Bougainville

 

a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean; the largest of the Solomon Islands. Part of New Guinea, a protectorate of Australia. Area, 10, 000 sq km; population, 71, 700 (1966). The terrain is mountainous; there are elevations to 3, 123 m (Mount Balbi). Vegetation consists of tropical rain forests. Coconuts and bananas are cultivated. There are tin deposits on the island, and gold is mined there. The island is named after the French mariner L. A. de Bougainville.


Bougainville

 

a deep-water depression near the south-western foot of Bougainville Island (Solomon Islands) in the Pacific Ocean. Length, about 300 km; depth, to 9,140 m. It is connected to the New Britain depression on the northwest at an angle of about 70°. Bougainville is one of the few deep-water depressions situated on the inner side of the island arc rather than on the outer, or oceanic, side.

Bougainville

1
Louis Antoine de . 1729--1811, French navigator

Bougainville

2
an island in the W Pacific, in Papua New Guinea: the largest of the Solomon Islands: unilaterally declared independence in 1990; occupied by government troops in 1992, and granted autonomy in 2001. Chief town: Kieta. Area: 10 049 sq. km (3880 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
At the time of Bougainville's journey, in 1766, the Rousseauist blend of doubt and dismay for the civilized, and patronizing wonder for the primitive certainly was the tone struck by intellectual society.
Bougainville tribe leader Cletus Miarama disputed them, however.
She quickly realised a lot more was needed--including their own curriculum --if the school was to succeed in its mission to educate students from Bougainville, in Bougainville, to nurse in Bougainville.
The CMA CGM BOUGAINVILLE: impressive dimensions of the world's largest containership sailing under French Flag.
The airfield was recently rebuilt after being partially destroyed during the Bougainville Civil War of the 1990s in which government security forces battled pro-independence Bougainville Revolutionary Army separatists.
The protagonist of Andrew Adamson's Mr Pip (2012), fourteen-year-old Matilda (Xzannjah), lives in 1990s Bougainville, and dreams of growing up and joining her father in Australia.
The quake, at a depth of 10 km (6 miles), struck 68 km southwest of Panguna on the island of Bougainville, the U.S.
The US Geological Survey (USGS) said the first quake, originally put at 7.3 magnitude but later revised down, struck 57 kilometres (35 miles) off the town of Panguna on the remote and volcanic Bougainville island.
A major earthquake with a magnitude of 7.3 was recorded off Papua New Guinea's remote Bougainville Island, the US Geological Survey said on Friday, but there were no immediate reports of damage.
When late 1988, a group of Bougainville landowners protested against Australian owned Bougainville Copper Ltd, one of the world's largest copper mining projects, the Australian government was quick to intervene to safeguard its own interests and sovereignty.
The quake hit at a depth of 58 kilometers (36 miles) at 8.31 pm (1031 GMT), 65 kilometers west of Panguna town on Papua New Guinea's Bougainville Island, and 642 kilometers west of Honiara in the Solomon Islands.