Bozeman, John M.

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Bozeman, John M.

Bozeman, John M. (bōzˈmən), 1835–67, American pioneer. A Georgian, he went to the gold fields of Colorado (1861) and Montana (1862). In the winter of 1862–63 he traveled with a companion from Bannack, Mont., to Colorado by a route lying E of the Bighorn Mts. through lands reserved by treaty to the Native Americans. Since the only other approaches to Montana from the east were the long, circuitous Missouri River or a trail leading N from the Oregon Trail in Idaho (which necessitated a double crossing of the Continental Divide), he was enthusiastic about his short cut, which became known as the Bozeman Trail. Several parties, including one guided by Bozeman himself, used the trail in 1864, and in 1865–66 the federal government built forts Reno, Phil Kearney, and C. F. Smith to guard it. However, after the Fetterman Massacre, Dec., 1866 (see under Fetterman, William Judd), the trail S and E of Fort C. F. Smith was abandoned. In Apr., 1867, Bozeman was killed by Native Americans. Bozeman Pass, where the trail crossed the Belt Mts., and Bozeman, Mont., were named for him.

Bibliography

See study by D. M. Johnson (1971).

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Bozeman, John M.

(1835–67) explorer; born in Georgia. He pioneered the Bozeman Trail (1863–65), the best route for gold seekers on their way from southeastern Wyoming to Virginia City, Mont. He was killed by Blackfeet Indians at the crossing of the Yellowstone River.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
He describes what led up to the expedition, including the economic depression and national debt incurred due to the Civil War; the Bozeman Trail and how it led to the Red Cloud War and the Treaty of Fort Laramie; the characteristics of the Sioux and the US Army; economics during the Gilded Age; politics, philanthropy, and corruption during the period; the role of the Northern Pacific Railroad; Custer after the Civil War; the Yellowstone Expedition and battles; the cause of the Depression of 1873; and the expedition to the Black Hills.
As such its action was rougher than sandpaper so it was turned over to my friend Tom Sargis at Bozeman Trail Arms.
McDermott carefully reviews Red Cloud's rise to power, triumphs, the Bozeman trail, and his attempts to preserve traditional Sioux culture as the Sioux transitioned to a reservation lifestyle.
His name is Tom Sargis and he does business as Bozeman Trail Arms.
"Red Cloud's War: Brave Eagle's Account of the Fetterman Fight, December 21, 1866" is a brilliant fictional 'remembering' of Brave Eagle's account of the Fetterman Fight along the Bozeman Trail, December 21, 1866.
Beginning with the first white American "overlanders" crossing Lakota territory on their way to Oregon in 1841, the southern Platte River trails to the Denver and Pikes Peak gold mines, and the northwestern Bozeman Trail to Montana's gold, Ostler describes the period from 1941 to 1865 as a time of increasing encroachments on Lakota land.
He and the leaders of the Sioux and Cheyenne who live along the Bozeman Trail plot carefully and successfully carry out the battle of "Hundred in the Hand," killing 80 soldiers in what is known to American history as the Fetterman massacre of 1866.
As neither of the men have an enemy in the world, this spat will be short-lived, but in the meantime Ponsonby's Bozeman Trail has joined Paul Cole.
Phil Kearny, along the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming Territory, there was bad blood between the Oglala Sioux Chieftain, Red Cloud, and the military unit that built the fort to protect travelers going to the Montana gold fields.
Extensively illustrated with vintage black-and-white and full-color photographs on virtually every page, Promise: Bozeman's Trail To Destiny is a thorough history of conflicts between whites and Native Americans along the historic Bozeman Trail. Rich in narrative detail, and drawing on primary sources such as interviews and oral history as well as secondary sources, Promise strives to present as accurate a picture as possible of what daily life and the deadly struggles were truly like.
In Bound For Montana: Diaries From The Bozeman Trail, western historian Susan Badger Doyle has compiled and annotated diaries and journals kept by men and women who traveled through the American west on the Bozeman Trail.