Four of the 6 endemic avian families or subfamilies (Bernieridae, Brachypteraciidae
, Philepittinae [Eurylaimidae], and Vangidae) were sampled and found to be parasitized.
The third family is the Coraciidae, or rollers, which are related to the Brachypteraciidae
and Leptosomatidae, two families endemic to Madagascar.
leptosomus; both are restricted to Madagascar, like the entire family of the Brachypteraciidae
, and both, but especially B.