Brahmi


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Brahmi

 

one of the oldest varieties of Indian syllabic writing, written from left to right. The earliest literary monuments that have been read are a copper plate from Sokhgaura, Gorakhpur region (fourth century B.C.), and the edicts of Emperor Asoka (third century B.C.). Three types of Indian writing systems were formed on the basis of the Brahmi alphabet: northern, southern, and southeastern. The northern group includes Gupta, Tibetan, Nagari (and its recent form Devanagari, most commonly used in northern India for Hindi, Marathi, and other languages), Sarada, Newari (displaced by Devanagari), Bengali, Oriya, Gujarati, and Gurmukhi. The southern group includes Grantha, the source of the alphabets of four modern literary languages in southern India (Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, and Tamil). The southeastern group comprises writing systems that developed outside India, mainly based on the ancient Pali alphabet: Sinhalese, Burmese, Khmer, Lao, Thai, and the old writing systems of Indochina and Indonesia.

Numerous hypotheses exist on the origin of the Brahmi alphabet. Many scholars, including Indians, consider the Brahmi alphabet to be of Indian origin. As evidence of this, some scholars cite the examples of proto-Indian writing (third to second millennia B.C.) that were discovered during the excavations of the cities of Harappa (1921-34) and Mohenjo-Daro (1922-31) in the Indus Valley. However, the Indus Valley script was apparently an ideographic or mixed ideographic-syllabic system, whereas the Brahmi script is a syllabic alphabet, and the time gap between them is more than 1,000 years. There are some historians of writing who are looking to foreign sources for the origins of the Brahmi system. Some hold that it came from Greek, and others that it was derived from Semitic (most likely, from Aramaic).

It is not known precisely when the Brahmi writing system originated; the most probable date is the eighth or seventh century B.C.

REFERENCES

Diringer, D. Alfavit. Moscow, 1963. (Translated from English.)
Bühle, G. Indische Paleographie. Strasbourg, 1896.
Ojha, G. H. The Paleography of India, 2nd ed. Ajmer, 1918.
References in periodicals archive ?
In later times, probably under the influence of Brahmi, Kharosti texts from Niya in Central Asia show notations of long vowels.
Balkis Brahmi, 19, one of Brahmi's five children, told AFP he had been killed by two men in black on a motorbike.
Watanya said Brahmi was struck by a hail of 11 bullets fired from point-blank range.
The Kharosthi text labels the jar as the property of Buddhasiras (ayo kudiya bhiksusya budhasirasya pugaligasya [sic]), but the Brahmi and Bactrian inscriptions, strangely enough, refer it to the monk Buddhamitra (ayo kundiyah bhiksu-buddha-mittrasyah [sic] pudgaliyah).
La meme source a indique que ces deux responsables seront auditionnees egalement a propos de l'alerte envoyee par la CIA sur l'existence d'un plan visant l'assassinat Mohamed Brahmi.
Brahmi, a man with a bushy moustache and weather-beaten complexion, was elected MP for Sidi Bouzid in October 2011, birthplace of the revolution earlier that year that toppled president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
The family of father-of-five Brahmi said the ruling party Ennahda was behind both murders.
Summary: A leading critic of Tunisia's ruling Islamists, MP Mohamed Brahmi, was shot dead outside his .
Tunisia opposition member Mohamed Brahmi has been shot dead in the capital Tunis in the second assassination of an opposition politician of this year.
L'examen de l'affaire de l'assassinat de Mohamed Brahmi a ete reporte au 23 mai 2017, a la demande de la defense, a declare, mercredi, Sofiene Selliti, porte-parole de tribunal de premiere instance de Tunis et du pole judiciaire de lutte contre le terrorisme.
The Prime Minister was speaking as he visited Saturday the Information Gallery in Tunis where a photo exhibit in memory of martyr Mohamed Brahmi was held to mark the second anniversary of his assassination.
Tenders are invited for Gp vadad brahmi ,tq mahagaon ro water atm , rws dn, zp yavatmal