Braille


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Related to Braille: Helen Keller, Louis Braille

Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Braille printers will allow textbooks in more subjects to be printed and distributed, and around 12,000 people will benefit from this technology annually,' he added.
For nearly 200 years, braille code has enabled people with vision impairments around the world to get education and this braille book corner is an effort to make variety of books accessible to the visually impaired students.
He said initially more than 60 braille books including copies of the Holy Quran have been placed in this corner while the number of books will be increased gradually.
But, the FDA did not issue mandatory requirements, and a committee of the United States Access Board issued guidelines instead, encouraging but not requiring the addition of braille, a move that industry sources welcomed since a government mandate likely would have presented regulatory challenges, but associations representing the blind saw as a missed safety opportunity and potential health risk for those affected.
Understanding how essential braille literacy is for success in the sighted world, Braille Institute developed the two-phase, annual competition as a way to encourage children who are blind and visually impaired to fine tune their braille skills and celebrate their accomplishments.
improved Braille people knowledge, keypad reliability and effectiveness
A variety of approaches exist for providing braille literacy instruction, including beginning with uncontracted or contracted braille; using a basal reading approach; implementing a whole-language approach; using an individualized, student-centered approach; or utilizing a combination of two or more of these.
Louis Braille was born on this day in 1809 and went blind aged 3 following an accident in his father's workshop.
Braille is a form of written language for the blind that uses combinations of embossed dots and points, which are read by touch.
Dagar is developing a phone with a display panel of tiny bumps that can be varied in height independently to form characters in Braille, a system of reading for blind people invented by a Frenchman in 1824.
Los programas informaticos de transcripcion musical Braille facilitan, por una parte, la produccion de materiales adaptados y, por la otra, el intercambio de partituras entre videntes e invidentes, lo que es extremadamente importante en el ambito de inclusion educacional.
The charitable organisation named Ibsar will soon undertake the mission to distribute braille copies of the Quran starting from Makkah, where it will be distributed to registered blind people who can read braille, according to the Al Sharq Al Awsat newspaper.