Braille

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Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
Speaking on the occasion, first blind journalist of Pakistan, Syed Sardar Ahmad Pirzada said that inauguration of Braille Book Corner in the month of January has a great relevance as Louis Braille who was a French educator and inventor of Braille was born in this month.He thanked Advisor to Prime Minister Irfan Siddiqui for establishing the book corner for visually impaired persons and reviving the educational and literary departments under his supervision.
Braille books are appropriate for users who have both visual and hearing impairment.
In addition, braille books, magazines, and music materials are now available on the Internet through a system called Web-Braille.
Web-Braille offers access to more than 2,700 electronic Braille books on the Internet.
Talking to reporter, he said 'Braille Book Corner' (Gosha-i-Noor) was the first-ever such facility in the federal capital launched in January, 2018 for visually impaired persons, marking the birthday celebrations week of Louis Braille-the inventor of Braille system for visually impaired persons.
For nearly 200 years, braille code has enabled people with vision impairments around the world to get education and this braille book corner is an effort to make variety of books accessible to the visually impaired students.
Ahead executive director Ann Heelan said: "Children must wait an unacceptable length of time before receiving a Braille book and often they do not get the entire book, but a chapter at a time.
The book, which is entitled Touch the Earth, is reportedly the first Braille book combining MODIS Sensor imagery and science content from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) along with the TUI technology of Somatic Digital.
LANGUAGE FIRST Braille reader Stephen Green with AM Jenny Randerson and RNIB Cymru director Joyce Ratterton at the launch of the first ever Welsh language; braille book.
(Copyright note: this file disk is for personal use only; contact the vendor about the rights for institutional use.) With a braille embosser and a braille translator (and enough braille paper), you can make a braille book by only typing a few commands on the computer.
ISLAMABAD -- National Library of Pakistan (NLP) has planned to upgrade its 'Braille Book Corner' into a state-of-the-art National Disability Resource Center to provide quality reading facilities to the visually impaired persons as well as persons with other disabilities.
Sibal stated that the Task Force should also look at incorporating the suggestion from a round table member that the publishers make available electronic manuscripts of books to Braille book publishers so that the effort of retyping a book could be avoided.