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(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.


A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.


Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing


(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
Participants were observed in their technique, participated in discussions about the use of braille, and drilled each other on letters of the braille alphabet using the large manipulatable braille cells.
These specialized techniques include using "twin vision" books, composed of both print and Braille; using a large Braille cell with removable dots and using a Braille basal reading series (Harrison, 1987; Heikkila, 1990; Holbrook & Koenig, 1992; Koenig, 1990; Swenson, 1988; Swenson, 1991; Willoughby & Duffy, 1989; Wurzbach, 1988).
Since braille reading proceeds by a serial and exhaustive traverse of a sequence of braille ceils, with fingerpads not in contact with more than one whole braille cell at any instant, one may suspect that whole words cannot be the units of processing.
Once students understand the structure of the braille cell, a collection of small magnetic dots and magnetic boards (or cookie sheets) work well as a center activity in the classroom.
This requirement worked well with lowercase alphabetic symbols, but uppercase print letters, which required two braille cells (the first braille cell for the capital symbol, dot 6, and the second for the letter itself), introduced a conflict between the capabilities of embossed braille produced by a computer and the proper format of transcribed braille needed by readers.
A small wooden braille cell was used for the initial instruction.
Tenders are invited for supply of 40 cells electronic braille display module, suitable for operating in the pc system, item code asm 40, make optelec or equivalent 40 braille cells are preassembled in a single line.
8220;Eighty Braille cells is long enough to give you an appreciation of the way a document is laid out, which can really help you produce a well-formatted document,” says Jonathan Mosen, Freedom Scientific's Vice President of Blindness Hardware Product Management.
When he joined the braille program, Tucker knew nothing about braille and doubted his ability to decipher this complex communication code made up of six-dot braille cells.
With 20 Braille cells, an 8-dot Braille keyboard, a high quality speech synthesizer, and ALVA's Smart-Control(TM) user interface, the MPO is unique in design and functionality.
There are some fundamental differences between print and braille which affect the use of a braille display: braille letters are considerably larger than normal sized print text and refreshable braille cells (the braille is produced by raising and lowering pins to produce braille cells) are a relatively new technology.