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(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.
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A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (
References in periodicals archive ?
Teachers, who were the sole instructors of the original Brailler, pushed back at the proposed idea of a 21st century upgrade that would take them out of the driver's seat.
Leo Burgess is the first pupil in Wales to use the hi-tech Cosmo Electronic Brailler
"Students learn to live independently, and job skills training is vital." The students use specialized equipment such as a brailler, computers with synthesized speech, a machine that converts print into tactual vibration, and talking-book cassette players.
This includes textbooks, restaurant menus, accessible technology, and computer software such as Visual Brailler, an app that works with iPad[R], and the "Indoor Explorer" personal navigation app recently launched at the Louisville airport.
The most frequently used tool was the Perkins Brailler (n = 76), followed by refreshable braille displays (n = 17), braille notetakers (n = 16), embossers (n = 7), Perkins SMART Braillers (n = 5), Mountbatten Braillers (n = 4), slate and styli (n = 4), and the electric Perkins Brailler (n = 3).
It may mean the transcription of a textbook with the Brailler machine or computer training at cost for some individuals.
Another subject used a Perkins brailler to record her responses, which were later transferred to the appropriate answer form for scoring.
White visited the children at BHMS to show them how a cane is used, let them type words on a Brailler, and answer questions.
Readers will find a wealth of practical and essential information such as how to teach a student to put a sheet of paper in the Perkins Brailler, how to interline braille so that a sighted teacher or parent can read it, and how to teach editing when using a Perkins Brailler or a braille notetaker, among many others.
The club donated $1,340 toward the purchase of the Mountbatten Pro Brailler, which is intended to allow the pupil to participate more fully in class, according to Elizabeth S.
Kamei-Hannan and Lawson (2012) found that students were engaged in writing tasks for extended periods and with higher quality when using the braille note taker with its unique features that were not present with the Perkins brailler. Bouck, Flanagan, Joshi, Sheikh, and Schleppenbach (2011) utilized a computer-based voice input, speech output (VISO) calculator to study how students completed basic mathematics problems, with a focus on efficiency as compared to the students' typical approach to calculation.