Braille

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Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
Leo Burgess is the first pupil in Wales to use the hi-tech Cosmo Electronic Brailler
Teachers may use special tools that involve some added training for students, including audio material ("talking books"), special clocks and watches, braillers and transcribers, and sensory training devices.
In 2008, PDT worked with Perkins Products to develop a lighter, more efficient and durable Next Generation Perkins Brailler that is now actively used in classrooms and homes around the world.
The method of Brailling differs as some institutions use Perkins Braillers while others use embossing machines.
Another subject used a Perkins brailler to record her responses, which were later transferred to the appropriate answer form for scoring.
The Next Generation Perkins Brailler is a huge step forward for greater literacy - and, therefore, greater employment possibilities - which will help more people who are blind to live more independently.
Readers will find a wealth of practical and essential information such as how to teach a student to put a sheet of paper in the Perkins Brailler, how to interline braille so that a sighted teacher or parent can read it, and how to teach editing when using a Perkins Brailler or a braille notetaker, among many others.
Brailler Perkins (Standard Perkins Brailler-emboss 25lines with42 cells On 11" x 11 Vi sheet)
The club donated $1,340 toward the purchase of the Mountbatten Pro Brailler, which is intended to allow the pupil to participate more fully in class, according to Elizabeth S.
Kamei-Hannan and Lawson (2012) found that students were engaged in writing tasks for extended periods and with higher quality when using the braille note taker with its unique features that were not present with the Perkins brailler.
To provide accessible mobile phone to visually impaired students of the age of 18 years and above only, once in five years and to provide laptop, Braille Note Taker and Brailler to school going disabled students (10th and above), once in 10 years.