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blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleenspleen,
soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes them.
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, kidney, lungslungs,
elastic organs used for breathing in vertebrate animals, excluding most fish, which use gills, and a few amphibian species that respire through the skin. The word is sometimes applied to the respiratory apparatus of lower animals.
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, brainbrain,
the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. It also serves as the site of emotions, memory, self-awareness, and thought. Anatomy and Function
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, and heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. The acute emergency known as myocardial infarction or heart attack is usually caused by a blockage in one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The blockage typically occurs when a blood clot (see thrombosisthrombosis
, obstruction of an artery or vein by a blood clot (thrombus). Arterial thrombosis is generally more serious because the supply of oxygen and nutrition to an area of the body is halted.
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) lodges in an area already narrowed by arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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; other causes are vasospasms in the arterial walls or viral infection of the heart. Symptoms include a crushing pain in the chest radiated to either arm (more commonly the left arm), the jaw, and the neck. The pain may be experienced, particularly in women, as pain in the shoulder or stomach, instead of the chest, and in some cases there are no symptoms at all. The seriousness of the infarction is dependent upon the amount of heart muscle affected, how long the area is deprived of blood, and whether it affects the natural pacemaker of the heart, setting off arrhythmiasarrhythmia
, disturbance in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. Various arrhythmias can be symptoms of serious heart disorders; however, they are usually of no medical significance except in the presence of additional symptoms.
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 such as ventricular fibrillation. Death of heart muscle tissue and heart failure may result (see congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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); damage to other vital organs, including the brain, may occur if the heart is unable to pump necessary oxygen and blood to them. Confirmation of myocardial infarction is made by electrocardiographyelectrocardiography
, science of recording and interpreting the electrical activity that precedes and is a measure of the action of heart muscles. Since 1887, when Augustus Waller demonstrated the possibility of measuring such action, physicians and physiologists have recorded
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 and measurement of elevations of white blood cells and certain enzymes. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction may include first aid in the form of cardiopulmonary resuscitationcardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique.
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 (CPR), an emergency balloon angioplastyangioplasty
, any surgical repair of a blood vessel, especially balloon angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a treatment of coronary artery disease.
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, or the administration of beta-blockersbeta-blocker
or beta-adrenergic blocking agent
, drug that reduces the symptoms connected with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, migraine headaches, and other disorders related to the sympathetic nervous system.
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 and thrombolytic drugsthrombolytic drug
or clot-dissolving drug,
substance, such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), that causes the breakdown of blood clots (see thrombosis) that obstruct the flow of blood through the vessels.
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 (clot-dissolving drugs), such as tissue plasminogen activator. The healing of an infarction occurs through replacement of the dead tissue by scar tissue.

See also coronary artery diseasecoronary artery disease,
condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. Coronary artery disease is the most common underlying cause of cardiovascular disability and death.
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Condition or process leading to the development of an infarct.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chiasserini et al., "Immunological Profile of Silent Brain Infarction and Lacunar Stroke," PLoS ONE, vol.
* A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Cerebral Infarction (Brain Infarction).
Clinical study showed that the level of TLR2 and TLR4 in neutrophils at 72 h and 7 days following ischemia and reperfusion was an independent indicator associated with the volume of brain infarction and prognosis of stroke patients [59].
A silent stroke is a tiny brain infarction that presents without any symptoms, a stroke so minor that most patients don't realize they've had one.
In patients with hemispheric infarction (n = 148), depending on the lateralization of the focus, brain infarction was located in the right hemisphere in 46.6% (n=69) patients, and in 53.4% (n=79) patients--in the left hemisphere.
Pretreatment of silymarin, but not silibinin, dose-dependently (1, 5, and 10[mu]g/kg) reduced the CI/R-induced brain infarction by 16-40% (Table 1, one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05) with significant decrease at the doses of 5 and 10[mu]g/kg (i.v.) of silymarin treatments (Table 1: one-way ANOVA followed by S-N-K f-test, p < 0.05, n = 10 for each group).
The study found that people who were among the bottom 25 percent of performers on the Trail Making Test B were three times more likely to have a stroke or a brain infarction compared to those who scored among the top 25 percent of performers on the test.
The brain infarction core evaluation method implementation can find all suitable pairs by simple querying the database system with conditions of one CTA examination, one NCCT examination belonging to the same patient and acquired in the same day.
We have used the rat model of brain infarction with photochemically-induced thrombosis (PIT) caused by platelet aggregation (2,3).
OSAKA - Ozeki Tochiazuma indicated Sunday he may retire after medical tests revealed he had suffered a brain infarction in the past.
The book also includes copies of Cleo's x-rays to display where the brain infarction took place.
The sample consisted of 10 individuals admitted to a large state university hospital for stroke due to brain infarction or ischemia secondary to a thrombus or emboli.

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