Branching


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branching

[′branch·iŋ]
(computer science)
The selection, under control of a computer program, of one of two or more branches.
(nuclear physics)
The occurrence of two or more modes by which a radionuclide can undergo radioactive decay. Also known as multiple decay; multiple disintegration.

Branching

 

in plants. There are two distinct primary forms of branching, dichotomy and monopodial branching. In dichotomy the growth center divides into two new growth centers, which usually produce second-order branches, almost identical in length and thickness, which can in turn divide into third-order branches, and so on. This form of branching is characteristic of many algae, some fungi, club mosses, liverworts, and other plants. In monopodial branching the growth of the main axis does not stop, and second-order branches, usually less developed, form below the top of the main axis. These branches can also divide into third-order branches and so on. This type of branching is peculiar to spruce, pines, and other coniferous plants, to many herbaceous plants, to leafy mosses, and other plants.

False dichotomy arises from monopodial branching: the growth of the main axis stops and two nearly identical second-order branches, opposite each other, develop below its top and grow beyond the main axis. This may be observed in lilacs (under the inflorescences), the horse chestnut, and mistletoe. Sympodial branching can arise either from dichotomy or monopodial branching. In the first instance one of the branches develops more strongly, growing in the direction and taking on the external appearance of the main axis, and the other branch, which is less developed, becomes more like a branch of the following order. This kind of branching is found, for instance, in selaginella. In the second instance (more widespread) the growth of the main axis stops, and its place is taken by the side branch nearest the top. This kind of substitution can be repeated many times. Sympodial branching is widespread in flowering plants and is inherent in fruit trees and shrubs—lindens, hazels, willows, birch, aspen, rhizomes of grasses, and others. Branching determines the exterior appearance, or habitus, of the plant and is used in taxonomy. [Diagrams of the types of branching are shown in Figure 1.]

Figure 1. Diagrams of branching: (1) dichotomy, (2) monopodial, (3) sympodial, (4) false dichotomy. The roman numerals designate branches of various orders.

In addition to the stems, the roots, inflorescences, veins (conducting bundles) in leaves and stems, thalli in lower plants, and so forth can also branch. Occasionally shoots appear during branching that are different from the parental shoot (for example, during the tillering of grasses and the formation of runners and stolons).

References in periodicals archive ?
There are at least three reasons why the shared branching concept will continue to help power the growth of the credit union movement well into the future:
* Shared branching is helping credit unions address the demands of the modern consumer for true omnichannel access, smoothly combining online, mobile and in-branch touch points.
The credit union movement did not build up the shared branching concept because branches are cheap and plentiful.
As a bonus, according to a study by Raddon Financial Group, even though the shared branching users only make up 6.8% of all the households at the average credit union, they bring in 12.7% of the total profit.
Since we're talking about profits, another credit union, which started using shared branching in 2007, began opening branches to shared branching transactions.
From the stated examples and Raddon study, not only is shared branching cost effective for credit unions on a budget, it is also profitable for credit unions looking to boost their bottom line.
Credit unions with members who use other CUs' branches for shared branching transactions are issuers and pay a fee for those transactions.
One credit union CEO whose credit union started shared branching in mid-April agreed that a strong economic case could be made for shared branching.
We also support H.R.2235's approach that would extend interstate branching powers to only those banks that are at least adequately capitalized and adequately managed (which we assume means having acceptable supervisory ratings).
We applaud the solution to this problem proposed in H.R.2235 and in the Nationwide Banking and Branching Act, H.R.459.
Such requirements could also encourage foreign authorities to enact similar restrictions on branching activities by foreign banks, including U.S.