Breadfruit Tree


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Breadfruit Tree

 

the name applied to several species of trees of the genus Artocarpus, family Moraceae. The monoecious trees grow to a height of 30–35 m and have entire or lobed leaves. The plain, unisexual flowers have a simple perianth and are gathered into unisexual racemes with a fleshy axis, the tissue of which surrounds them completely. Racemes with staminate flowers are elongate or club-shaped, while those with pistillate flowers are rounded. After pollination their tissue proliferates rapidly, forming large, edible aggregate fruits. In the outer layer of the aggregate fruits is found the tightly packed fruits proper; these are drupes containing seeds 2–3 cm long.

There are about 50 species of the breadfruit tree, found in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and other tropical regions. The common breadfruit tree (A. altilis, A. communis, or A. incisa), which has been cultivated since ancient times on islands of the Pacific, is of the greatest significance. It grows up to 35 m in height and 1 m in diameter. The leaves are palmatilobate, and the aggregate fruits weigh up to 3–4 kg. No less valued is the jackfruit tree (A. integer, A. integrifolia, or A. heterophyllus), which grows up to 15 m in height and has entire leaves. Its huge aggregate fruits, which reach 50–60 cm in length and 30–40 cm in diameter, weigh up to 30 kg and are formed directly on the trunk of the tree.

The aggregate fruits of the breadfruit tree contain 60.5–80 percent starch, up to 14 percent sugars, and 0.2–0.8 percent fats. They are eaten boiled or baked. The seeds are eaten roasted. Seedless forms of species of breadfruit tree, cultivated in the tropics of both hemispheres, have the greatest economic significance. In some regions, especially on islands of Oceania, breadfruit is an important source of food. The lumber of the jackfruit tree and other species of breadfruit tree is not damaged by white ants or fungi and is used for building houses, furniture, and musical instruments.

REFERENCES

Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
Siniagin, I. I. Tropicheskoe zemledelie. Moscow, 1968.
Artocarpus. In Wealth of India: Raw Materials, vol. 1. Delhi, 1948.

S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Richard Leonard Americans (many voices, one song) Gunning, Monica (1998) Under the breadfruit tree Illus.
/ I wish words written and arranged by women were valued / as much as words written and arranged by men." The parallel structures here are a favorite of Fusselman's; the anaphora indeed creates a "hammered sound," like the idiophone--a class of musical instrument represented here by the recurrent image of a majestic slit gong fashioned from a hollowed out breadfruit tree on the South Pacific island of Vanuatu.
In the spirit of Marder and Vieira's association of specific plants with particular philosophical modes I would propose a productive reading might be made of the significance of a number of plants in My Garden (Book): (1999), in very different locations: the Wisteria in her Vermont garden, the Breadfruit Tree, and the Rubber Tree in the glass house in the Botanical Garden in Antigua.
The fact that the composition of the seeds from the African Breadfruit tree varies from tree to tree has been highlighted in other studies [11, 25].
"The breadfruit tree my father planted" would need to become a breadfruit tree, an example of artocarpus altilis, comparable to any other, at least in the grant application of the conservationist.
There is no section that was not happy with my insistence that nobody should cut Breadfruit tree and take it to plank sellers.
In the 19th century, General Charles George Gordon - who would later find fame and death in the Siege of Khartoum - spread the story that this was where the Garden of Eden itself had once been, with the palm tree as the tree of knowledge and the breadfruit tree as the tree of life.
Male inflorescences from a diverse selection of breadfruit trees were sun dried at the National Tropical Botanical Garden's Breadfruit Institute in Kalaheo, Hawaii, and provided to scientists for testing.
The students, with the support of the local community and the state ministry of environment, planted a variety of tree seedlings, including palms and breadfruit trees. The trees not only address the erosion problem, but will provide edible fruits and shelter to the community.
On an Island Safari Land Rover our group of six drove at a leisurely pace past rippling sugar cane fields, smelly breadfruit trees, 100ft cabbage palms, mahogany trees and rum shops with names like Dr-T's Bar and Grill.