breast implant

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breast implant,

saline- or silicone-filled prosthesis used after mastectomymastectomy
, surgical removal of breast tissue, usually done as treatment for breast cancer. There are many types of mastectomy. In general, the farther the cancer has spread, the more tissue is taken.
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 as a part of the breast reconstruction process or used cosmetically to augment small breasts. An implant consists of a fluid-filled, malleable pouch that is designed to mimic to the look and feel of natural breast tissue when inserted into a pocket created under the skin in a procedure called a mammoplasty.

After reports that leakage from silicone-filled implants might be causing autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupuslupus
, noninfectious chronic disease in which antibodies in an individual's immune system attack the body's own substances. In lupus, known medically as lupus erythematosus, antibodies are produced against the individual's own cells, causing tissue inflammation and cell damage.
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, arthritisarthritis,
painful inflammation of a joint or joints of the body, usually producing heat and redness. There are many kinds of arthritis. In its various forms, arthritis disables more people than any other chronic disorder.
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, scleroderma) in some women, the Food and Drug Administration in 1992 called for a moratorium on their use outside clinical trials. The ensuing scare resulted in the largest product liability settlement in U.S. history and the Chapter-11 bankruptcy of Dow Corning Corporation, one of the makers of the implants. Despite legal settlements in the billions of dollars, the claims against silicone-filled implants remain anecdotal; numerous scientific studies have found no link or only a weak equivocal link between the implants and disease. The use of silicone-filled implants was again approved by the FDA for reconstructive surgery in 1998 and for cosmetic surgery in 2006.

In 2010 silicone-filled implants manufactured by the French company Poly Implant Protheses (PIP) were banned after it was discovered that the firm had used industrial-grade, instead of medical-grade, silicone gel. Industrial-grade silicone has more contaminants, and French authorities advised (2011) that French women have the implants removed because they were believed to have a higher than normal incidence of rupture. Some countries adopted similar recommendations, while others did not; the implants had not been licensed for use in the United States. A 2012 British report on the PIP implants found that the gel used in them did not constitute a long-term health threat.

Bibliography

See M. Angell, Science on Trial (1996).

References in periodicals archive ?
There are now an awful lot of ladies in the armed forces now who have had breast enlargement surgery and if they are in a vulnerable situation or combat, unless they've got that protection underneath they're leaving themselves vulnerable to things like ruptures and blood clots.
We wanted to offer every woman a fast and safe alternative to expensive and painful breast enlargement surgery," a Rodial spokesman told the UK's Daily Mail.
HEATHER Mills has told an employment tribunal she fell out with her nanny after refusing to pay for her breast enlargement surgery.
Another patient claims she was assaulted as she prepared to leave the hospital after breast enlargement surgery.
I The care worker from Kennoway, Fife, had thought about breast enlargement surgery for years but it was only after seeing the results of her daughter Lisa's operation that she made her mind up.
Orlaith underwent breast enlargement surgery with MYA six months after giving birth to her daughter.
ASPIRING Pamela Andersons at Coventry City Council are being told they cannot take paid time off for breast enlargement surgery.
Now turning 18, Lucy celebrates her birthday with the ultimate present, breast enlargement surgery.
Surgically-enhanced Claire - who has had breast enlargement surgery - looked surprised as presenter Davina McCall announced the result.
When a woman has breast enlargement surgery, she shows everyone,'' Ellenbogen said.
She's had numerous facial procedures and breast enlargement surgery that only a blind man could fail to notice.
I find it particularly ironic though, that's it's just been revealed that last year 250 young girls in Wales under the age of 16 were considered eligible for NHS breast enlargement surgery.