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1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.


Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effective and simple tools, including breast self-examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE), have been advocated.
Maybe in a country like ours that cannot afford effective screening, we can lead the way with a reasonably balanced approach, awareness and teaching around breast examination (particularly as 60% of cancers here are diagnosed at sizes over 3 cm), more use of ultrasound-guided core biopsy diagnosis, and selective use of digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Diagnostic results of MTT elements CBE plus ultrasound, CBE plus FNAC, and MTT Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Accuracy (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) CBE 100 92.3 60.0 100 93.1 Ultrasonography 100 94.2 66.7 100 94.8 FNAC 100 98.1 83.3 100 96.5 Concordant MTT 100 100 100 100 100 Concordant CBE 100 100 100 100 100 plus sonography Concordant CBE 100 100 100 100 100 plus FNAC MTT = modified triple test; CBE = clinical breast examination; FNAC = cytological examination of a fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen; PPV = positive predictive value; NPV = negative predictive value.
Look out for the following when undertaking a breast examination: a lump or thickening in an area of the breast, dimpling of the skin, a change in the shape of your breast or nipple, an inverted nipple, discharge from the nipple area, a rash on the nipple or surrounding area and a lump in your armpit.
A careful and complete breast examination is important in the workup of a breast mass.
He was initially suspended from the medical register after a panel heard lurid allegations, including that he had performed an "indecent" breast examination on a female without her permission.
Additionally, the data suggested that clinical breast examination (CBE) and breast self-examination should continue to play a role in detecting breast cancer.Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in the United States.
Yes But adding clinical breast examination (CBE) to mammography also increases the rate of false-positive findings, according to a cohort study of 290,230 women in Canada.
These include a free breast examination and a mammogram for BD25.
Eighty-five women had to undergo a second breast examination and 14 were told they have breast cancer.
Eighty-five women had to undergo a second breast examination, and 14 were told they had invasive breast cancer.
Only 39.4% of Latinas and 36.0% of Asians reported having had a clinical breast examination. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether the set of variables in our study reliably predicted breast cancer screening among the two groups of participants.