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Difficult or labored breathing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
She began feeling depressed and experienced breathing difficulty.
The toxin may trigger a chronic cascade of inflammatory responses, an overreaction that can quickly kill some fish and likely causes the acute and chronic human health problems associated with Pfiesteria exposure, which include memory loss, learning impairment, breathing difficulty, nausea, lethargy, and skin lesions.
The cloned male calf at the Oita prefectural livestock experimental station died of breathing difficulty about 40 minutes after being born by Cesarean section.
Three years later, in the spring of 1985, Amy experienced chest pains and breathing difficulty. A doctor familiar with AIDS symptoms was suspicious; tests confirmed his worst fear: the 24-year-old woman, not in any of the high-risk groups, had contracted AIDS from a tainted transfusion.
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A two-year-old Emirati girl died of smoke inhalation and four of her family members suffered burns and breathing difficulty after a fire ripped through their house in Fujairah in the early hours of Tuesday.
When his respiratory distress worsened, an oral airway tube was placed, and his breathing difficulty resolved immediately.
Some people who worked near or with water or sediment in fish kill areas have suffered short- and long-term symptoms believed to be linked to Pfiesteria such as memory loss, learning impairment, breathing difficulty, nausea, lethargy, and skin lesions.