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Mary, the mother of Jesus
The events of her life mentioned in the New Testament include her betrothal and marriage to Joseph; the archangel Gabriel's annunciation to her of Jesus' birth; her visitation to her cousin Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist; Jesus' nativity; her purification at the Temple; her station at the Cross, where Jesus instructed that she and his disciple John should consider themselves related as mother and son; her visit to Christ's tomb after his resurrection; and her attendance in the room with the Twelve Apostles at Pentecost.
Although few other details of her life are mentioned or implied in the Bible, tradition has it that she was the daughter of St. Joachim and St. Anne, announced miraculously to them; that she was presented and dedicated at the Temple as a virgin; and that she was “assumed” directly into heaven, a doctrine that did not appear until the 5th cent. In 1950, Pope Pius XII's bull Munificentissimus Deus made Mary's bodily assumption into heaven an article of faith.
Her Significance in Christianity
Virginity and Immaculate Conception
Intercession and Veneration
Patroness and Artistic Subject
See H. C. Graef, Mary (2 vol., 1963–65); H. A. Oberman, The Virgin Mary in Evangelical Perspective (1971); S. Benko, Protestants, Catholics and Mary (1978); H. Küng, ed., Mary in the Churches (1983); M. O'Connell, ed., Theotokos: A Theological Encyclopedia of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1983).
Mary, 1867–1953, queen consort of George V of England
Mary, persons in the Bible
Mary, city, Turkmenistan
the mother of god, the Virgin Mary, the Madonna; in Christian mythology the mother of Jesus Christ.
In the Gospels it is said of Mary that she was the wife of Joseph, that she immaculately conceived and gave birth to Jesus Christ, and that she was present at the execution of Jesus. The Apocrypha tell about Mary in more detail. In Christianity the cult of Mary formed under the influence of pagan cults of the mother-goddess or fertility goddess (Isis, Astarte, and others).
In the fourth century Mary was declared by Christian theologians to be “immaculate” and “ever virgin” (despite references in the New Testament to the brothers of Christ). At the Ecumenical Council of 431, Mary was officially declared the mother of god. The image of Mary proved to be more comprehensible to the masses of believers than the abstract Trinity. The cult of Mary (the “intercessor” for mankind) gained widespread popularity, especially among Catholics. Many religious holidays and icons are dedicated to Mary. Certain dogmas absent from Eastern Orthodoxy have been proclaimed in Catholicism, including in 1854 the dogma of Mary’s own immaculate conception by her mother and in 1950 the dogma of Mary’s bodily assumption (after her death) into heaven. In 1964, Pope Paul VI proclaimed Mary the “mother of the church.”
The theme of the blessed virgin and child occupies an important place in medieval art. During the Renaissance great canvasses by Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and others were devoted to the image of Mary (the Madonna).
A. P. KAZHDAN
(until 1937, Merv), a city, administrative center of Mary Oblast, Turkmen SSR. Situated on the Murgab River and the Karakum Canal. Junction of railroad lines to Tashkent, Krasnovodsk, and Kushka. Population, 67,000 (1973; 8,500 in 1897; 37,000 in 1939; 48,000 in 1959).
Industry in Mary includes a big wool-washing factory, a cotton gin, a machine-building plant, a housing-construction combine, food enterprises, (a flour mill, a bakery, a meat combine, and a dairy plant), leather enterprises, and rug-making enterprises. The Mary State Regional Electric Power Plant, which is located nearby, went into operation in 1973. Mary is the site of medical and teacher-training colleges, the Museum of History and Revolution, and a drama theater.
Mary arose in 1884 as the military and administrative center of Merv District. The ruins of ancient Merv are 30 km east of the city.
Mary is maintained (and used) by Kvatro Telecom AS. Although dated, it still offers a nice strongly typed 3GL with macros but without most of C's flaws.
It runs on SPARC and x86 computers.
Hidden on the back cover of the manual: MARY HAD A LITTLE LAMB - COERCION IMPOSSIBLE.
["Mary Programmer's Reference Manual", M. Rain et al, R Unit, Trondheim Norway, 1974].
["Operator Expressions in Mary", M. Rain, SIGPLAN Notices 8(1), Jan 1973].