18; 1 Kings 9) and there are indications here of both bridewealth
This decline has also affected the composition of traditional bridewealth
, so that money is often substituted for the animals.
In a similar vein, Gelfand (1981) observes that although there are provisions of divorce among the Shona, divorce is not common due to the restraint placed on the couple by the bridewealth
20) By establishing that all bridewealth
payments must be paid in full within a calendar year the Ordinance will provide a useful time-frame for future courts to turn in establishing a multitude of formal agreements, legally, that are never intended by the Shona entering into bridewealth
In the colonial period, contract work in South Africa, especially in the mining industry, was almost an obligatory career and life stage for Southern Mozambican men: work in the mines did not just provide money necessary for young men to pay bridewealth
and to start themselves up economically, but also played an important role in the formation of their gender identity.
Indians Dutch English Prestation X Ransom X Bridewealth
X Compensation for death X Treaties X X X Trade X X X Cash money X X' Commodity X * Infrequent Table 5.
Also, husbands were required to repay bridewealth
contributors with standardized portions of pork, and occasionally to present their wife's relatives with a large pig for slaughter to cement the affinal relationship.
In some areas money and consumer goods have been substituted for traditional valuables in customary exchanges, such as bridewealth
Through the payment of bridewealth
, cattle provide the foundation for the family and the continuation of the lineage, as these lines from an ox song indicate:
As a daughter, Tambu has no need of education since her marriage would bring the family bridewealth
(a son needs an education to earn the bridewealth
required to acquire a wife); therefore, Jeremiah views Tambu's education as interfering with her ability to learn the social roles and duties that would make her a marriageable woman.
By suppressing bridewealth
upon the advice of missionaries, colonial administrators found the family system disintegrating.
based on cattle-exchange is not only a commercial transaction, but also the mode of important ritual exchanges and alliance formation of social and political significance; all these networks dry up when the cattle perish because of drought.