Encyclopaedia Britannica

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Encyclopaedia Britannica

 

the oldest and one of the most famous universal encyclopedias in the capitalist world.

The first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was published in three volumes in Edinburgh from 1768 to 1771. On the whole, the first eight editions were not of a very high standard. K. Marx, who used the eighth edition of the encyclopedia, remarked (based on his study of the articles on military and historical subjects) in a letter to F. Engels on July 16, 1857, that this encyclopedia was “copied almost verbatim from German and French publications” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 29, p. 123). The ninth edition (1875-89, in 25 volumes) of the Britannica showed considerable improvement, especially in the sections on the natural and exact sciences. The 11th edition (1910-11, in 29 volumes) is considered to be the best: the content was broadened, biographies of living figures were included for the first time, and the scientific content of a number of articles was highly esteemed by contemporaries. The extremely well-compiled index was also noteworthy. In 1929 the 14th edition of the Britannica was published in 24 volumes; it was the last edition to be numbered. Since that time the Britannica has been published using the so-called continuous revision system, according to which a small portion of the articles are revised at the time of each annual reprinting. Some American and British scholars, in analyzing the Encyclopaedia Britannica, have noted that most of the articles have been reprinted for many years without any changes although many of them contain outmoded, erroneous information.

The predominant type of article is an extended survey of a broad subject, as a result of which the number of entries is comparatively small (averaging 40,000 terms). The publishers of the Britannica draw upon scholars from approximately 50 countries to write the articles. Many questions of history, philosophy, politics, and economics are explained from anticommunist points of view.

At the beginning of the 20th century a joint Anglo-American venture was formed to work on the Britannica, a fact which has led to its transformation into a British-American encyclopedia both in content and in the basic staff of authors and editors. Since the early 1940’s the Britannica has been published in Chicago by Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., headed by W. Benton (died 1973). An editorial section of the Britannica has been retained in London. Since 1938 yearbooks entitled Britannica Book of the Year . . . have been brought out (in separate American and British editions).

In 1947, four supplementary volumes of the Britannica were published, reflecting the events of 1937-46 connected with World War II and its preparation and consequences. For the 200th anniversary of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in 1968, three volumes were issued containing major articles on various branches of knowledge. In 1969 announcements appeared in the press concerning the initial stage of preparing a new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

I. V. GUDOVSHCHIKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
El pasado 22 de julio el principe George lo celebraba apareciendo ante el publico en tres fotografias realizadas por la duquesa de Cambridge, quien es una gran aficionada y suele proveer a la Casa Real britanica de sus propias instantaneas familiares.
Otra categoria de menores europeos vulnerables a la deportacion tras el Brexit son aquellos con derecho a obtener la nacionalidad britanica, pero que no tienen los recursos financieros para conseguir la nacionalidad, que cuesta actualmente poco mas de mil libras esterlinas (unos 25 mil pesos).
La famosa actriz britanica Emma Thompson describia asi a la Gran Bretana--su patria--cuando, en 2016, se convoco al referendum que consultaria a sus compatriotas si deseaban abandonar la Union Europea--el Brexit--o permanecer en ella.
El informe, publicado en la revista britanica BMJ, destaca que comer cada dia dos o mas porciones de ciruelas, manzanas y peras reduce las probabilidades de sufrir esas enfermedades.
Donfried (Searching for a Cultural Diplomacy, 2010) en el que podemos ver el modelo de diplomacia cultural britanica, siempre reflejado en el British Council.
El capitulo quinto aborda la "segunda" revolucion, la Gloriosa, acaecida entre 1688 y 1689, con la intencion y logro de derrumbar las reformas que habia emprendido Jacobo II Estuardo y desterrar el catolicismo de las islas britanicas. El sexto y ultimo capitulo nos brinda unas interesantes paginas sobre los cambios sociales y culturales de la sociedad britanica en el siglo XVII, sobre la educacion, las universidades, las sociedades cientificas y acerca de una cultura publica compartida.
Primeiramente, e feita uma discussao sobre as razoes do distanciamento do Reino Unido com relacao a Europa continental, o que levou a criacao de uma imagem de "nos e eles" e a nao-identificacao da populacao britanica no geral como um "europeu" tambem.
Me concentro en tres perspectivas: dos que dominaron la historiografia sobre la expansion imperial britanica durante la segunda mitad de siglo XX--el concepto de "imperialismo informal" y el de "el capitalismo de caballeros"--y una tercera, la mas reciente--la descripcion del historiador britanico John Darwin del Imperio britanico como un "proyecto imperial", sumamente diverso, hibrido y nunca terminado; su ultimo libro es precisamente Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain (Allen Lane, 2012)--.
La mision tecnica britanica es un ejemplo de cooperacion que permitio articular el programa de Ingenieria Mecanica, desarrollar cursos, vincular profesionales internacionales y a su vez obtener fuentes de financiacion para este departamento.
Favorecia a esta integracion el hecho de que la dependencia de Europa -tanto economica como culturalmente- no se vivia en Chile de manera conflictiva, sino mas bien como un hecho positivo, ya que se consideraba que la relacion con la potencia britanica dignificaba al pais.
En catorce millones de dolares, la Biblioteca Britanica adquirio el Evangelio de San Cuthbert, copia manuscrita del Evangelio de San Juan del siglo VII.