(159) Similarly, because of the Harti clan distribution, Puntland could argue that its "citizens" (Harti clan members) were effectively occupying and administering the territory as an ethnic majority at the time of independence and beyond, even though it was technically within British Somaliland
Meanwhile, rapid progress toward self-government was being made in British Somaliland
. Elections for the Legislative Assembly were held in February 1960, and one of the first acts of the new legislature was to request that the United Kingdom grant the area independence so that it could be united with Italian Somaliland when the latter became independent.
Although the Italians temporarily occupied British Somaliland
during World War II, British forces quickly reclaimed the area and took control of all the Somali territories except Djibouti.
The British Somaliland
Protectorate was Peggy's home for "a little less than two years [yet] the land and its people had a radical and lasting impact on her." A healthy curiosity and enthusiasm also must have helped to make it feel less like building bridges across oceans.
In the light of difficulties, which the British experienced in parts of Somaliland during the years 1898-1920, due to the not infrequent distractions of Muhammad Abdille Hassan (the "Mad Mullah" of British Historical records), British policy in the entire region, and, principally, in British Somaliland
, wavered from complete or partial withdrawal to coastal concentration or total occupation of the interior with all that it entailed in terms of loss of lives and financial resources, between less administration and more administration.(13) These divergent viewpoints had their respective advocates in the Colonial and Foreign Offices.
Somalis do not forget Siad Barre's massacres in the late 1980s of some 150,000 northerners in the former British Somaliland
, or his near-total destruction of northern towns like Hargeisa with the help of South African bomber pilots and U.S.
(1) At independence, Somalia--officially the Somali Republic after the union of former British Somaliland
in the North and former Italian Somaliland in the South (2)--was regarded as one of the least likely African countries to fall into the category of a "failed state." (3) The majority of Somalians are ethnically Somali; they share a similar adherence to Sunni Islam and nomadic pastoralism.
But once the two areas were secure, and egged on by its arch-colonialist, Cecil Rhodes, to acquire a collection of Cape-to Cairo territories to build a Cape-to-Cairo railway (Rhodes famously said in those days: "I contend that we [the English] are the first race of the world, and the more we inhabit, the better it is for the human race"), Britain went for broke and almost succeeded through its control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), British Somaliland
, Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Bechuanaland (Botswana), Lesotho, Swaziland, and South Africa.
Somaliland is a self-proclaimed state established in 1991.It considers itself to be the successor state of the former British Somaliland
protectorate, but remains unrecognized by the international community.
Somaliland, the former British Somaliland
, declared independence from failed Somalia 18 years ago, and remains active without international support.
A large area with a northern coastline on the Gulf of Aden facing Yemen is the former colony of British Somaliland
, which has a functioning government and calls itself Somaliland.
Referring to the two former Somalilands--the Italian Somaliland (which is todays Somalia) and the British Somaliland
(Somaliland which is seeking recognition), President Kahin said the international community "negates the historical background of Somalia and Somaliland as two entities from the very beginning ...