Themes of national defence and cultural integrity align Boudicca's campaign against the Romans with Elizabeth's resistance against the Spanish at Tilbury, for example, and the Tudors' own preference was to trace their historical lineage to Brute and Trojan origins, highlighting a Brittonic
heritage (MacDougall 7).
'Historians', he holds, 'dislike the word "Celtic", as it was not a word these people used themselves.' Up to around AD 900, when Cornwall fell under the English kings of Wessex, Orme calls the Cornish 'Britons', and their shared culture with Wales and Brittany 'Brittonic
from Irish, galore, shamrock, Tory; from Scottish Gaelic, loch, slogan, whisky) but also a handful from the Brittonic
As probably the last corner of England to suffer the incursion of Anglo-Saxon invaders, Cornwall has always retained more of its "Welsh," or Brittonic
, character than did those other parts of England that the Anglo-Saxons settled more quickly and densely.
(44) These Breton and Cornish saint plays present us with an unusual opportunity to study dramatizations of Brittonic
saints with a perceived local significance and to examine the ways in which these narratives express both parochial and supranational meanings.
The English names may be translations of this Brittonic
If he had existed in the sixth century, Aneirin, from the north, would have written in the language of the "Old North" of England and southern Scotland, which was "Old Brythonic", or "Cumbric Brittonic
", perhaps similar to, but certainly not Welsh.
Jackson stated that the name Telleyr 'is not recognisable, but Anguen with its gu must be a Brittonic
name, and probably comes from a Brittonic
written document, since if the source was oral Anuen would probably appear.
A short side remark: it is interesting to note that the name of Caedmon is an Anglicization by oral loan of a Brittonic
hero's or warrior's name, evidenced among the British princes in the seventh century.
Breeze, 'Celtic Etymologies for Middle English hurl "rush, thrust" and fisk "hasten"', Leeds Studies in English, xxiv (1993), 123-32; 'Old English cursung "curse'", N&Q, ccxxxviii (1993), 287-9: 'Middle English tirve "strip, flay; overthrow'", ibid., 295-6; 'A Brittonic
Etymology for luche "throw" in Patience 230', SELIM, iii (1993), 150-3; 'Celtic Etymologies for Middle English brag "boast", gird "strike", and lethe "soften'", Journal of Celtic Linguistics, iii (1994), 135-48: 'A Celtic Etymology for glaverez "deceives" at Pearl 688', N&Q, ccxl (1995), 160-2.
But those Britons who spoke the Celtic language known as Brittonic
(the ancestor of Welsh, Cornish and Breton) began, in the same century, to use another name for themselves, Combrogi - "fellow countrymen".
Jackson considered the evidence of Cornish lesic 'bushy' possible, but not wholly convincing, while he described Watson's Brittonic
cognate of lobh- 'rot' as 'pure hypothesis'.