Broad-Leaved Forests

Broad-Leaved Forests

 

forests of deciduous (summer-green) trees with broad laminae. Broad-leaved forests are widespread in eastern North America, Europe, North China, and Japan as the native vegetation between the coniferous and boreal forests of the north and the steppes and the Mediterranean, or subtropical, vegetation of the south.

Broad-leaved forests are confined to humid and moderately humid regions with lessened continentality, even annual distribution of precipitation, and relatively high temperatures. Gray, dark gray, and brown forest soils are characteristic, with chernozems sometimes occurring.

The trees in broad-leaved forests constitute the first and second layers of foliage. An undergrowth stratum of shrubs makes up the third layer, and grasses and low brush make up the fourth and fifth layers. Beech and oak broad-leaved forests predominate in Europe, with hornbeam and linden forests less common. In addition to the principal trees, ash, elm, and maple commonly occur in European broad-leaved forests. In North America maple-beech, oak-hickory, and oak forests are most widespread. Oak-chestnut forests were common there until the chestnut was wiped out by the parasitic fungus Endothia parasítica. Other frequently encountered trees are the tulip tree, liquidambar, and American linden. In coniferous-broad-leaved forests, pines, spruces, larches, and other coniferous species constitute a significant part of the stand. Common members of the understory in the broad-leaved forests of Eastern Europe are hazel, hedge maple, Tatar maple, European bird cherry, and spindle tree. Mesophyllic eutrophic or mesotrophic species predominate in the grass cover of the broad-leaved forests; prominent species in European forests are mercury, goutweed, dead nettle, wild ginger, lungwort, woodruff, and hairy sedge. Vernal ephemeroid geophytes, whose leaves open and whose seeds mature before foliage appears on the trees, also are characteristic. Common species are corydalis, anemone, toothwort, snowdrop, squill, and star-of-Bethlehem.

In the southern hemisphere forests of evergreen beech (Nothofagus) are classified as broad-leaved forests.

REFERENCES

Rastitel’nyi pokrov SSSR: Poiasnitel’nyi tekst k “Geobotanicheskoi karte SSSR.” Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Schmithüsen, J. Obshchaia geografiia rastitel’nosti. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from German.)
Walter, H. Rastitel’nost’ zemnogo shara, vol. 2. Moscow, 1974. (Translated from German.)
Tolmachev, A. I. Vvedenie v geografilu rastenii. Leningrad, 1974.

O. V. SMIRNOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Popadyuk RV, Smirnova OV, Chistyakova AA (1994) Eastern European Broad-leaved Forests.
We investigated the effect of matrix habitat structure on mammalian communities in a hyper-mosaic landscape between broad-leaved forests and conifer forestry plantations of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) in central Japan.
The comparative analysis of the forest formation pattern complexity was conducted according to the natural regions of the republic or by its generalizing groups [20], in accordance with the landscape conditions matrix and zonal vegetation: 1) Pre-Kama taiga coniferous-deciduous forests; 2) Pre-Kama region of northern broad-leaved forests with spruce parts; 3) Pre Volga region of broadleaf forests with spruce in the north, and ash in the south; 4) Regions of the southern Trans-Volga-Kama broadleaf forests; 5) Trans-Volga-Kama regions of northern meadow steppes in combination with deciduous forests.
In northern European forests in the temperate--boreal transition zone, human activities were responsible for a decline of broad-leaved forests and expansion of spruce (Bradshaw & Hannon, 1992; Lindbladh et al.
Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudoscorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe (Jabin et al.
A comparative study on evergreen broad-leaved forests and trees of the Canary Islands and Japan--Laboratory of Ecology.
Under conditions of forest-steppe, moose affect the growth and development of broad-leaved forests and decrease their productivity (Zlotin and Khodashova 1974, Gusev 1989).
To the south, the European taiga borders the deciduous forest biome, with a very broad strip of mixed conifer and broad-leaved forests that is sometimes called southern taiga.
It combines the formation of three forest zones of the European part of the USSR such as the southern taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forests.
seedlings in the broad-leaved forests of the Tula region are given.