Current results illustrate that BA47, (1) participates in a frontal language production system, which probable includes not only the classical Broca's area
, but also BA46 and the medial extension of BA6, corresponding to the supplementary motor area, and some subcortical areas ("Broca complex", Ardila, Bernal, & Rosselli, 2016c) (Figure 2); (2) it also has a secondary participation in semantic processing; coactivartion with left temporal areas involved in semantic processing (BA37 and BA20).
has since ranked among the brain's most closely examined language regions in cognitive psychology.
These areas correspond to Broca's area
, Wernicke's area, and the posterior language association area (Pinel, 2000).
For example, the specimen KNM-ER 1470, a well-preserved early representative of Homo (disagreement exists as to species assignment) from East Africa, exhibits a probable Broca's area
(unlike australopithecines), and a definite hemispheric asymmetry.
However, in the late bilinguals, both are located separately within Broca's area
at the frontal lobe.
Findings from diffusion tensor imaging (a way-cool display of disrupted water flow in the brain that has to be seen to be appreciated) showed that the brains of both a small group of adolescents who had smoked marijuana daily for a year and a group of schizophrenic teens showed the same structural abnormalities in the fiber pathway that connects Broca's area
in the left frontal lobe with Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe.
When Leborgne died shortly thereafter of a gangrenous infection, Broca's autopsy revealed a lesion in a part of the brain he referred to as the circonvolution du language, now known as Broca's area
Since then, brain studies have shown that active language development happens around 18 months of age in specific areas of the brain, including the development of the Wernick's area, which confers understanding, and matures before the Broca's area
, where the brain produces speech.
discusses current, and sometimes controversial, issues from the psychopharmacologist's perspective
In those boys, Broca's area
was larger on the right side, on average, than the left.
Women in the chemotherapy group had decreased glucose metabolism in the superior frontal gyrus and in Broca's area
in the dominant hemisphere and in its contralateral counterpart, compared with the control group.
It is furthermore argued that the restriction of coding--decoding to Broca's area
is too simple: the representation in the brain must be distributive.