Brooklyn

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Brooklyn

(bro͝ok`lĭn), borough of New York City (1990 pop. 2,300,664), 71 sq mi (184 sq km), coextensive with Kings co., SE N.Y., at the western extremity of Long IslandLong Island
(1990 pop. 6,861,454), 1,723 sq mi (4,463 sq km), 118 mi (190 km) long, and from 12 to 20 mi (19–32 km) wide, SE N.Y.; fourth largest island of the United States and the largest outside Alaska and Hawaii.
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; an independent city from 1834, it became a New York borough in 1898. Brooklyn has the largest population of the city's five boroughs. Among its manufactures are machinery, textiles, paper products, and chemicals; it is also a center of foreign and domestic commerce and has extensive waterfront facilities. The Brooklyn (1883), Manhattan, and Williamsburg bridges span the East River, connecting Brooklyn with Manhattan; beneath the river are the Hugh L. Carey, or Brooklyn-Battery, Tunnel (vehicular) and subway tunnels. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connects the borough with Staten Island.

Neighborhoods and Points of Interest

Brooklyn is a borough of well-defined neighborhoods, from the gentrified brownstone communities of Park Slope and Cobble Hill to Bedford-Stuyvesant, the largest African-American neighborhood in the city. Brighton Beach has a large community of Russian Jews, and there are also neighborhoods of Caribbean blacks, Hispanics, Italians, Poles, Hasidic Jews, Arabs, Chinese, and others.

Among educational institutions in the borough are Brooklyn College of the City Univ. of New York, Polytechnic Institute of New York Univ., Pratt Institute, St. Joseph's College, and Long Island Univ. Near Prospect Park, scene of fighting in the American Revolution (see Long Island, battle ofLong Island, battle of,
Aug. 27, 1776, American defeat in the American Revolution. To protect New York City and the lower Hudson valley from the British forces massed on Staten Island, George Washington sent part of his small army to defend Brooklyn Heights, on Long Island.
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), is the main building of the Brooklyn Public Library. Nearby are the Brooklyn Museum of Art, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and the renowned, innovative Brooklyn Academy of Music.

In the "City of Churches," the Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims, where Henry Ward BeecherBeecher, Henry Ward,
1813–87, American Congregational preacher, orator, and lecturer, b. Litchfield, Conn.; son of Lyman Beecher and brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe. He graduated from Amherst in 1834 and attended Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati.
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 preached, is perhaps best known. Other points of interest include Coney IslandConey Island
, beach resort, amusement center, and neighborhood of S Brooklyn borough of New York City, SE N.Y., on the Atlantic Ocean. The tidal creek that once separated the island from the mainland has been filled in, making the area a peninsula.
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, with its beach, amusement park, and New York Aquarium; the Barclays Center (2012), home to professional basketball's Brooklyn Nets; Brooklyn Bridge Park; Green-Wood Cemetery; and the Lefferts Homestead (1777). Fort Hamilton (1831) overlooks the Narrows of New York Bay. Marine Park, Floyd Bennett Field (originally the city's first municipal airport), and parts of Jamaica Bay are included in Gateway National Recreation Area.

History

The Dutch and English settled the area (previously home to the Canarsie) in 1636 and 1637; about nine years later Dutch farmers established the hamlet of Brueckelen, near the present Borough Hall. By 1664, six towns had been established: Breuckelen (later anglicized to Brooklyn), Bushwick, Flatbush, Nieuw Amersfoort (Flatlands), Gravesend, and New Utrecht. Kings county was established in 1683; the Brooklyn Ferry area was incorporated as the village of Brooklyn in 1816, and the entire town was chartered as a city in 1834. In the 1830s Brooklyn Heights became perhaps the first modern suburb, accessible to New York City by ferry.

Brooklyn steadily absorbed neighboring settlements. After annexing Williamsburg and Bushwick in 1854, it became the third largest city in the United States, and continued to absorb other towns, including Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Gravesend, until it became coextensive with Kings County in 1896. In 1898, when it became a New York City borough, its population was 830,000. Immigration doubled its population in the next twenty years.

The New York Naval Shipyard (popularly, the Brooklyn Navy Yard) was located on the East River from 1801 until its closing in the late 1960s, when Brooklyn was declining as a port; the site is now an industrial park. The Daily Eagle, published in Brooklyn from 1841 until 1955, had Walt WhitmanWhitman, Walt
(Walter Whitman), 1819–92, American poet, b. West Hills, N.Y. Considered by many to be the greatest of all American poets, Walt Whitman celebrated the freedom and dignity of the individual and sang the praises of democracy and the brotherhood of man.
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 as one of its early editors. The borough is also famed as home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (at Ebbets Field), until the baseball team moved to Los Angeles in 1957.

Bibliography

See H. C. Syrett, The City of Brooklyn, 1865–1898 (1944, repr. 1968); R. F. Weld, Brooklyn Is America (1950, repr. 1967) and Brooklyn Village, 1816–1834 (1932, repr. 1970); D. W. McCullogh, Brooklyn (1983); E. Willensky, When Brooklyn Was the World (1986); K. Jackson, The Neighborhoods of Brooklyn (1998); M. Linder and L. S. Zacharias, Of Cabbages and Kings County (1999).

Brooklyn

a borough of New York City, on the SW end of Long Island. Pop.: 2 465 326 (2000)
References in periodicals archive ?
Luckily, she did not wait for me to admit anything; she just hurled forward, at first focusing exclusively on me and my disdain, and then broadening the attack to my friend and other Brooklynite disdainers, calling us disrespectful, ill-mannered, and conceited.
The borough's devotion to the Dodgers loosely united three million racially diverse people, although a few of those Brooklynites had the audacity to root for the Yankees or the Giants.
The ICS outreach campaign will let these Brooklynites know about ICS and the wonderful services offered here.
Luckily their name - derived from an ol' timey country standard - is about all that's gloomy about this banjo-sporting band of Brooklynites.
The Hall of Famers, the high jinx, the incredible openness of the camp to fans -- most sweetly the Brooklynites who still came down to see their Dodgers in the sunshine for decades after the club left NewYork.
Brooklynites Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, on the other hand, can't seem to avoid comparisons with Talking Heads.
two Brooklynites and one Eugenean (via New Jersey)' are planning something as a departure from the usual Cinco de Mayo fare.
Gary Parker, president of Lambda Independent Democrats of Brooklyn accused Golden of being homophobic: "It is unfortunate that the senator's views are not more aligned with the majority of Brooklynites, who pride themselves on the diversity of the greatest city in the world," he said.
As Gerry would say, you can tell the hardcore Brooklynites by those of us who know Ebbinger's.
Clarke's classic tale of crime and cataclysm, "All the Time in the World"; Ray Bradbury's "A Sound of Thunder," in which a vacationing dinosaur hunter accidentally discovers what a single butterfly can mean; a haunting specter from the future in Barbara Softly's "Master Ghost and I"; and Jack Finney's "The Love Letter," in which two lonely Brooklynites strike up a correspondence even though they live nearly a century apart.
But once again, God changes everything: The former Brooklynites, Philadelphians and Baltimoreans now camping out in "Judea" and "Samaria" (the West Bank to you) wave the Bible and the Israeli government lavishes on them all sorts of privileges--cheaper mortgages, income tax breaks, business development and housing grants--with results that are disastrous for Israel and Palestinians alike and that now threaten the peace of the entire world.