Adriaen Brouwer

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Brouwer or Brauwer, Adriaen

(both: ä`drēän' brou`ər), c.1606–1638, Flemish painter who worked in Haarlem. He studied with Hals at the same time as did the young Ostade, and the influence of their two styles, as well as that of Rubens, is apparent in his paintings. Brouwer is noted for his depictions of peasant life, particularly of drinking scenes and humorously treated single figures sleeping or smoking. Brouwer's early canvases were richly colored, in the Flemish style, while his later works (1631–38) were often monochromatic, a characteristic of the contemporary Dutch fashion. Brouwer was also an important master of landscape and a superb draftsman. His Drinkers at a Table (Brussels) and The Smokers (Metropolitan Mus.) are characteristic.

Bibliography

See study by G. Knuttel (tr. 1962).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Brouwer, Adriaen

 

Born 1605 or 1606, in Oudenaarde; buried Feb. 1, 1638, in Antwerp. Flemish painter.

A native of Flanders, Brouwer went to Holland about 1621 and worked, for the most part, in Amsterdam and in Haarlem, where he joined Franz Hals’ workshop about 1623-24. In 1631, Brouwer settled in Antwerp. One of the greatest masters of Flemish genre painting, Brouwer addressed himself to the life of the peasants and the urban lower classes, painting primarily scenes of carousing and brawling, of smokers and cardplayers in semidark taverns. Small in size, Brouwer’s paintings neither idealize nor refine but portray the life of the common people with its contradictory and at times gloomy aspects. Along with their spiritual ignorance and rudeness, however, Brouwer emphasized the activity of the simple people, the wholeness of their nature, and the fullness of their vital forces. Brouwer’s early paintings were sharply grotesque and marked by an expressiveness of mimicry and gestures. In his mature works, the characterization of the protagonists is enriched, the dramatic quality of the action is combined with a lyricism of mood, objects acquire a rare expressiveness, dynamic composition is executed with classical meticulousness, and the coloration is saturated and deep. Moreover, the sharp contrasts between patches of color are softened by finely nuanced light haze in such paintings as Peasants Brawling Over a Game of Cards (Gemäldegalerie, Dresden) and A Bitter Drink (Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main). In Brouwer’s late paintings, the composition is calmer and simpler, the humor more intimate and benign, and a lyrical and dreamy mood prevails, for example, The Sleeping Smoker (Louvre, Paris) and Self-portrait (Mauritshuis, The Hague). Brouwer also painted rural landscapes, captivating in their portrayal of the intimate, melancholy poetry of evening silence and in their use of dramatic lighting effects, as seen in Moonlight (Gemäldegalerie, Dahlem Museum, West Berlin).

REFERENCES

Bode, W. Adriaen Brouwer. Berlin, 1924.
Höhne, E. Adriaen Brouwer. Leipzig [1960].
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
The tale was told of old Brouwer, a most heretical disbeliever in ghosts, how he met the Horseman returning from his foray into Sleepy Hollow, and was obliged to get up behind him; how they galloped over bush and brake, over hill and swamp, until they reached the bridge; when the Horseman suddenly turned into a skeleton, threw old Brouwer into the brook, and sprang away over the tree-tops with a clap of thunder.
The stories of Brouwer, of Bones, and a whole budget of others were called to mind; and when they had diligently considered them all, and compared them with the symptoms of the present case, they shook their heads, and came to the conclusion chat Ichabod had been carried off by the Galloping Hessian.
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Virtuoso playing and sensibility, all in one." High praise indeed from Cuban composer and classical guitarist Leo Brouwer about this Greek musician.
Alexander Brouwer and Robert Meeuwsen return to Doha to defend the gold they won in 2018, and the Dutch pair have been seeded seventh.
de Brouwer, M.D., from the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands, and colleagues assessed vascular risk factors among 1,991 consecutive patients (mean age, 78 years) seen in a general hospital's memory clinic (April 2009 to April 2015).
de Brouwer, a geriatrician at the University Medical Centre in the Netherlands.
In that case, they tried to bring a class action complaint and it was remanded for arbitration."<br />Deborah Brouwer, a partner at Nemeth Law PC in Detroit which represents employers, said the court's decision continued several decades of affirmation for arbitration as an acceptable form to resolve many disputes, this time being an employment dispute.<br />"Employees were making a new argument claiming that agreements that prohibit class actions violated the NLRB act, because that act allows employees to gather collectively," Brouwer said.
Brouwer, last year published a book titled How to Become a Multicultural Church, which tells the story of his experiences as a pastor in the Zurich church, where he has served since 2014.
Gold medal winners Alexander Brouwer and Robert Meeuwsen (centre) of the Netherlands, silver medal winners Oleg Stoyanovskiy and Igor Velichko (left) of Russia and bronze medal winners Cherif Younousse and Ahmed Tijan of Qatar pose on the podium of the FIVB World Tour Katara Cup Beach Volleyball with Qatar Olympic Committee (QOC) first vice president Dr Thani bin Abdulrahman al-Kuwari and secretary-general Jassim al-Buenain yesterday.