Brown Forest Soils

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Brown Forest Soils

 

soils formed under mixed broad-leaved or, less frequently, coniferous forests under conditions of a temperate, warm, moist climate on soil-forming rocks of various origin and mechanical composition. The soils are usually distinguished by their brown color and lumpy, nutty texture. In cross section, brown forest soils are divided into A0, a layer of forest litter 2-5 cm thick; A1, a humus layer 15-20 cm thick (occasionally up to 30 cm thick); and B, the lower layer of maximum loam (15-40 cm thick). The greatest quantity of humus (6-10 percent) is contained in the humus layer. The acidity and degree of saturation with bases of brown forest soils depend on their geographic position; a more acidic reaction of such soils is found in southern regions. Brown forest soils are further subdivided into typical (saturated or unsaturated with bases and residually carbonaceous), podzolized, and gley (surface gley or pseudopodzolic) soils. Brown forest soils are found in western and central Europe, in the northwestern USA, in China, and in Korea. In the USSR they are found in the Carpathians, the Crimea, the Caucasus, and the southern part of the Far East. High yields of tobacco, grapes, tea, and other crops can be grown on brown forest soils, which also have great value for forestry.

IU. A. LIVEROVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first 104 m of this shelterbelt is located on mineral soils (division: autogenic soils, order: brown forest soils, type: hapludalfs, subtypes: glossudalfs and ochraqualfs) and the next 104-125 m on mineral-organic soils (division: hydrogenic soils, order: post-bog soils, type: mucky soils, subtype: muckous soils) (Table 1).
Sirovy, V.: 1974, Clay mineral formation and alteration in some brown forest soils. Rostl.
RUSLE K soil erodibility values Soil order Soil type RUSLE erodibility K (t.h [MJ.sup.-1] [mm.sup-1] Zonal Low Humic Latosols, L 0.10 Humic Latosols, H 0.10 Humic Ferruginous Latosols, F 0.15 Intrazonal Latosolic Red Prairie Soils, P 0.20 Latosolic Brown Forest Soils, B 0.20 Dark Mag Clay, M 0.10 Grey Hydromorphic Soils, D 0.10 Low Humic Gleys, G 0.20 Ground Water Laterite, W 0.30 Mountain Slope Complexes, S 0.15 Azonal Lithosols, T 0.30 Alluvial Soils, A 0.15 Regosols, C 0.05 Table 2.
This area comprises 6 soil subgroups: brown forest soils, brown forest soils with gleyed B and C horizons, iron podzols, peaty podzols (with thin iron pan), non-calcareous gleys, and peaty gleys.
Nakaya (1982) found that the repellency of 4 unspecified Japanese brown forest soils increased to some extent after heating to 105 < T < 200[degrees]C, increased steeply for 200 < T < 250[degrees]C, and declined for T > 250[degrees]C.