Brown Swiss

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Brown Swiss


(also Schwyz), a breed of dairy and beef cattle. The breed was developed in Switzerland through the long-term selection of descendants of Shorthorn cattle brought there in ancient times. The animals are light gray to dark brown. A characteristic feature is the light coloring around the dark gray nose. The coloration is lighter along the upper torso, from the withers to the tail head. The males weigh 800–950 kg, sometimes reaching 1,200 kg; the females weigh 550–600 kg, sometimes reaching 800 kg. Calves raised for meat weigh 260–300 kg at the age of one year. The milk yield is 4,000–4,500 kg, with the most efficient cows producing more than 10,000 kg. The fat content of the milk is 3.7–3.8 percent.

The Brown Swiss was first imported into Russia in the mid-19th century to improve local breeds. In the USSR, it is bred for both milk and meat. By crossing local cattle from various regions with the Brown Swiss and by reproducing the crosses, large groups of brown cattle were developed that later became the basis for various indigenous breeds, such as the Kostroma, Alatau, Lebedin, and Caucasian Brown cattle.

The Brown Swiss is bred in the German Democratic Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Italy, France, Spain, and Czechoslovakia, in the countries of North and South America, and in southern Africa. In the USSR it is bred in the central part of the RSFSR and in the Northern Caucasus.


Vsiakikh, A. S. Shvitskaia poroda i melody ee sovershenstvovaniia. Moscow, 1970.
Skotovodstvo. Edited by E. A. Arzumanian. Moscow, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The market by breed has been segmented into Guernsey, Jersey, Holstein, Brown Swiss, and others.
Studies on the milk production traits of Brown Swiss cattle.
The data were composed of Holstein (38 heads), Simmental (27 heads), Brown Swiss (23 heads) and crossbred (15 heads) young bulls reared at Bolvadin district, Afyon province of Turkey.
The cows were all year-round calving and, 12 years ago, a threeway cross of Montbeliarde, Brown Swiss and Holstein was introduced, resulting in cows with great legs and feet, described by cattle auctioneer Jonny Dymond, from Halls in Shrewsbury, as "exceptional".
The final sample included 26 papers dealing with Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, and Fleckvieh dairy breeds.
The purpose of this study was focused on pregnant Brown Swiss and Simmental cows, imported from Austria to a private dairy cattle enterprise, which has recently started operation in Manisa Province, to compare their reproduction and milk yield performances in their first production year, to identify the impact of breed and calving month on those parameters, and to find the adaptation capabilities of cattle based on performance.
Este dato coincide con los resultados de vacas lecheras cruzas en su primer parto con 305 dias de lactancia ajustada, a saber: Brahman (5,4 litros/dia con un total de 1566 litros), Criollo (5,5 litros/dia y 1684 litros totales), Holstein (6,4 litros/dia y 1958 litros totales) y Brown Swiss (5,8 litros/dia y 1767 litros totales) (1).
At Allahabad Agricultural Institute during 1924-1934, the crossbreeding work was started using indigenous breeds like Sahiwal, Gir, Hariana, Kankrej and Red Sindhi cows with exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian, Jersey and Brown Swiss sires.
The Carora breed, a hybrid resulting from the cross between Brown Swiss and Criollo Amarillo de Quebrada Arriba (Lara State) is considered one of the most important local breeds in terms of the cattle farming industry in Venezuela [48].
Prosecutors said Paul Waterfall knew his Brown Swiss bull Zac was aggressive and should not have put it near a public path.