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(all: broi`gəl, Du. brö`gəl), outstanding family of Flemish genre and landscape painters. The foremost, Pieter Bruegel, the Elder, c.1525–1569, called Peasant Bruegel, studied in Antwerp with his future father-in-law, Pieter Coeck van Aelst, but was influenced primarily by BoschBosch, Hieronymus,
or Jerom Bos
, c.1450–1516, Flemish painter. His surname was originally van Aeken; Bosch refers to 's-Hertogenbosch (popularly called Den Bosch), where he was born and worked.
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. In 1551 he became a member of the Antwerp Guild. Bruegel visited Italy in the early 1550s. He remained close, however, to the Flemish tradition and employed his native powers of minute observation in depicting the whole living world of field and forest and of sturdy peasants at work and play. He was, himself, a learned city-dweller and friend of humanists. His paintings of genre subjects have allegorical or moralizing significance. In his tremendous range of invention, Bruegel approached Bosch in creating nightmarish fantasies in such works as The Fall of the Rebel Angels (Brussels). He also painted cheerful, acutely perceived scenes of daily life, e.g., Peasant Wedding (Vienna), for which he is best known. In the Fall of Icarus (versions in Brussels and New York), his only mythological subject, the title character is reduced to a tiny figure barely noticeable in a large genre scene.

Bruegel's range of subjects includes religious histories—Numbering at Bethlehem (Brussels), Way to Calvary (Vienna), with figures clothed in contemporary Flemish dress; parables—The Sower (Antwerp), The Blind Leading the Blind (Naples); genre scenes—Children's Games, Peasant Dance (both: Vienna); landscapes showing the activities of the months—(several in Vienna, Harvesters in the Metropolitan Mus.); and other works. A skilled draftsman and etcher, he used a delicate line to define his figures. His people are stubby in proportion, but lively and solid. His color is remarkably sensitive, as is his feeling for landscape. His compositions are often based on diagonal lines and S-curves, creating gentle rhythms and allowing planes of landscape to unfold into the distance.


See studies by L. Münz (1961), W. Stechow (1971), F. Grossmann (3d ed. 1973), and N. M. Orenstein, ed. (2001).

His son, Pieter Bruegel, the Younger, 1564–1637, often copied his father's works. Two of his paintings are in the Metropolitan Museum. His brother, Jan Bruegel, 1568–1625, called Velvet Bruegel, specialized in still life, rendered with extreme smoothness and finesse. He was a friend of Rubens, and occasionally supplied floral ornaments for works from Rubens's shop. He was also adept at landscape. Representative works are in Brussels and Berlin.


, Bruegel, Breughel
1. Jan . 1568--1625, Flemish painter, noted for his detailed still lifes and landscapes
2. his father, Pieter , called the Elder. ?1525--69, Flemish painter, noted for his landscapes, his satirical paintings of peasant life, and his allegorical biblical scenes
3. his son, Pieter, called the Younger. ?1564--1637, Flemish painter, noted for his gruesome pictures of hell
References in periodicals archive ?
More than 80 percent of the EU fintech market is based in Britain and its businesses are growing faster, data cited in the Bruegel report show.
With paintings such as this and his more famous scenes of peasant life, Bruegel achieved celebrity within his own time.
Bruegel is a European think tank that specialises in economics.
Rather than focusing exclusively on gaining market access as the only criterion to judge the programmes managed by the three partners (European Commission, ECB and IMF), the authors, led by Bruegel Director Guntram B Wolff, suggest other criteria, such as fiscal consolidation, the soundness of the financial sector, structural reforms, or a comparison of expectations and outcomes.
A veritable Bruegel bonanza is evident in contemporary independent film; in the niche, rarified world of artistic cinema, two films about the same artist within two years of each other could legitimately constitute such a craze.
Bruegel put the horizon high up to have more space for the harvest scene.
As Todd Richardson points out in his preface, the paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder have been the subject of continuous research since Karel van Mander first included him in his account of Dutch and Flemish painters in 1604.
In the exhibition, the paintings will be displayed alongside interactive content illustrating the technical analyses undertaken on each painting, as well as information about their genesis, relation to the art of Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder and the encrypted morals the paintings communicate.
The relationship of the subjects (six blind beggars) to the painter, Pieter Bruegel the Elder; and the way in which he represents them in the 1568 painting, Parable of the Blind, inspire questions of both ethics and aesthetics.
A new paper by the Brussels-based think tank Bruegel, to be presented to the informal Competitiveness and Research Council on 15 July, argues that Europe will only be able to meet global competition challenges if it boosts basic research, develops young and innovative companies and reforms patents.
And his speech to the Bruegel think-tank in Brussels emphasises that establishing the EU's global brand does not come down to one individual.
Instead, Bruegel seems to suggest the position of the painter, perhaps even from the vantage of his studio, observing from a distance the detailed incident progressing toward death's event below.