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(all: broi`gəl, Du. brö`gəl), outstanding family of Flemish genre and landscape painters. The foremost, Pieter Bruegel, the Elder, c.1525–1569, called Peasant Bruegel, studied in Antwerp with his future father-in-law, Pieter Coeck van Aelst, but was influenced primarily by BoschBosch, Hieronymus,
or Jerom Bos
, c.1450–1516, Flemish painter. His surname was originally van Aeken; Bosch refers to 's-Hertogenbosch (popularly called Den Bosch), where he was born and worked.
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. In 1551 he became a member of the Antwerp Guild. Bruegel visited Italy in the early 1550s. He remained close, however, to the Flemish tradition and employed his native powers of minute observation in depicting the whole living world of field and forest and of sturdy peasants at work and play. He was, himself, a learned city-dweller and friend of humanists. His paintings of genre subjects have allegorical or moralizing significance. In his tremendous range of invention, Bruegel approached Bosch in creating nightmarish fantasies in such works as The Fall of the Rebel Angels (Brussels). He also painted cheerful, acutely perceived scenes of daily life, e.g., Peasant Wedding (Vienna), for which he is best known. In the Fall of Icarus (versions in Brussels and New York), his only mythological subject, the title character is reduced to a tiny figure barely noticeable in a large genre scene.

Bruegel's range of subjects includes religious histories—Numbering at Bethlehem (Brussels), Way to Calvary (Vienna), with figures clothed in contemporary Flemish dress; parables—The Sower (Antwerp), The Blind Leading the Blind (Naples); genre scenes—Children's Games, Peasant Dance (both: Vienna); landscapes showing the activities of the months—(several in Vienna, Harvesters in the Metropolitan Mus.); and other works. A skilled draftsman and etcher, he used a delicate line to define his figures. His people are stubby in proportion, but lively and solid. His color is remarkably sensitive, as is his feeling for landscape. His compositions are often based on diagonal lines and S-curves, creating gentle rhythms and allowing planes of landscape to unfold into the distance.


See studies by L. Münz (1961), W. Stechow (1971), F. Grossmann (3d ed. 1973), and N. M. Orenstein, ed. (2001).

His son, Pieter Bruegel, the Younger, 1564–1637, often copied his father's works. Two of his paintings are in the Metropolitan Museum. His brother, Jan Bruegel, 1568–1625, called Velvet Bruegel, specialized in still life, rendered with extreme smoothness and finesse. He was a friend of Rubens, and occasionally supplied floral ornaments for works from Rubens's shop. He was also adept at landscape. Representative works are in Brussels and Berlin.

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, Bruegel, Breughel
1. Jan . 1568--1625, Flemish painter, noted for his detailed still lifes and landscapes
2. his father, Pieter , called the Elder. ?1525--69, Flemish painter, noted for his landscapes, his satirical paintings of peasant life, and his allegorical biblical scenes
3. his son, Pieter, called the Younger. ?1564--1637, Flemish painter, noted for his gruesome pictures of hell
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It is for prints like these, issued long before the paintings, that Bruegel earned the nickname 'Second Hieronymus', but they also put him on the path to work that is entirely his own.
The Bruegel trio considers that the Greek programme has been "unsuccessful" due to "unrealistic" assumptions by the Troika, an opinion not shared by the Commission.
More than 80 percent of the EU fintech market is based in Britain and its businesses are growing faster, data cited in the Bruegel report show.
John Berryman was attracted to Bruegel's Hunters in the Snow, which inspired his poem Winter Landscape.
though if they were all left in the hands of Bruegel, one might have
help feeling Bruegel had someone special in mind for victim in that
Rather than focusing exclusively on gaining market access as the only criterion to judge the programmes managed by the three partners (European Commission, ECB and IMF), the authors, led by Bruegel Director Guntram B Wolff, suggest other criteria, such as fiscal consolidation, the soundness of the financial sector, structural reforms, or a comparison of expectations and outcomes.
A veritable Bruegel bonanza is evident in contemporary independent film; in the niche, rarified world of artistic cinema, two films about the same artist within two years of each other could legitimately constitute such a craze.
The Van Buuren collection features paintings that span five centuries of art, including Flemish and Italian masters, oil paintings by the sons of Bruegel and a piece from the school of Rembrandt, according to its website.
" About suffering they were never wrong, the old Masters." The opening of WH Auden's poem, inspired by Bruegel's painting, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, came to my mind as I sat on my favourite bench overlooking Barry's Whitmore Bay, listening to radio commentary on the first Ashes Test and reflecting on the death of teenager Hollie McClymont.
This painting was made by Pieter Bruegel the Elder more than 400 years ago.