Budding


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budding,

type of graftinggrafting,
horticultural practice of uniting parts of two plants so that they grow as one. The scion, or cion, the part grafted onto the stock or rooted part, may be a single bud, as in budding, or a cutting that has several buds.
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 in which a plant bud is inserted under the bark of the stock (usually not more than a year old). It is best done when the bark will peel easily and the buds are mature, as in spring, late summer, or early autumn. Budding is a standard means of propagating roses and most fruit trees in nurseries. See propagation of plantspropagation of plants
is effected in nature chiefly sexually by the seed and the spore, less often by rhizomes and other methods (see reproduction). Vegetative means include cutting, layering, grafting, tissue culture, and division of the roots (see perennial) and of the tubers
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.

Budding

 

a method of vegetative propagation of plants in which a bud of a cultivated variety is grafted to wildling stock. A new plant develops from the bud. Budding is performed in nurseries usually in the summer (late July or early August for pome fruits, somewhat earlier for drupaceous plants).


Budding

 

one of the methods of asexual (vegetative) reproduction of animals and plants. Budding is the formation on the parent body of a bud—an outgrowth from which a new individual develops. Plants capable of budding include certain ascomycetes fungi (in yeasts, budding is the principal means of reproduction), a number of basidial fungi, and liverwort mosses (which reproduce by means of brood buds, or bulbels). Among animals, budding is characteristic of protozoans (some flagellates, infusorians, and sporozoans), sponges, coelenterates, some worms, bryozoans, pterobranchs, and tunicates.

Budding in animals may be external or internal. External budding may be parietal, with the buds forming on the parent body, or stolonate, with the buds developing on special processes known as stolons (some coelenterates and tunicates). With internal budding, the new individual develops from an isolated area inside the parent body. Examples are the gemmules of sponges and the statoblasts of bryozoans, which have protective membranes and serve mainly to ensure survival when the parent body perishes in the winter or during a drought. In a number of animals, the budding process remains incomplete and the young individuals remain attached to the parent body. As a result, there arise colonies made up of numerous individuals (colonial organisms). Sometimes budding is artificially induced by various influences, such as burns or cuts, on the parent body.

A. V. IVANOV

budding

[′bəd·iŋ]
(biology)
A form of asexual reproduction in which a new individual arises as an outgrowth of an older individual. Also known as gemmation.
(botany)
A method of vegetative propagation in which a single bud is grafted laterally onto a stock.
(virology)
A form of virus release from the cell in which replication has occurred, common to all enveloped animal viruses; the cell membrane closes around the virus and the particle exits from the cell.
References in periodicals archive ?
For tumor budding assessment in colorectal cancer, the hotspot method is recommended.
A 3-tier system should be used along with the budding count to facilitate risk stratification in colorectal cancer.
Tumor budding should be included in guidelines/ protocols for colorectal cancer reporting.
Statements 1, 5, 7 through 9, and 11 were directly incorporated into the CAP cancer protocol as the advocated method for assessing and reporting tumor budding in colorectal carcinoma.
Tumor budding assessment should be limited to cases without neoadjuvant therapy, as there are insufficient data to assess the prognostic significance of tumor budding in the setting of neoadjuvant therapy.
The ITBCC guidelines provide a uniform methodology for the assessment and reporting of tumor budding, but further work is needed to address the challenges in assessment of tumor budding.
The reported interobserver variability for assessing tumor budding has ranged from moderate to very good, depending on the study.
Since most of the data in the literature were based on routine H&E staining for counting tumor buds, the ITBCC recommended H&E staining for budding counts.
Although the current ITBCC and CAP guidelines are to report the absolute tumor bud count as well as a score based on a 3-tier system (low, intermediate, or high), it is unclear whether tumor budding is best evaluated as a continuous variable or with a tiered system (eg, 3-tier [low, intermediate, high] as in ITBCC or whether a 2-tier system [low and high]) is sufficient.
Tumor Budding in Histologic Subtypes of Adenocarcinoma
Some have suggested that signet ring cell carcinomas, by definition, demonstrate high tumor budding. (63) Most authors have also noted that tumor budding should be assessed carefully in mucinous carcinomas so as to avoid counting tumor cells and clusters floating in pools of mucin as tumor buds.
Optimum time for budding stone fruit crops in south Ukraine.