The photographs of illustrated manuscripts are a special joy to behold, such as the beautiful opening pages of the Buginese
manuscript of the I La Galigo: Datu Bissue (Ms.or.fol.
However, guli 'rudder' also occurs in Yolngu languages on the Arnhem Land coast, and (an-)goli in neighbouring Burarra, where they are thought to be among the many ISEA loans acquired on this coast through past annual contact with Makassarese and Buginese
trepangers, both of whose languages have guli[eta] 'rudder' (Alpher 2017:133).
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese
2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Perhaps the most convincing evidence is reflexes of PMP *j, which Buginese
(South Sulawesi) and Tamanic both reflect as s (PMP *pajay 'rice in the field', Embaloh (Tamanic) ase, Buginese
ase, but PWIN *paday, PMP *([eta])ajan 'name', Embaloh asan, Buginese
ase[eta], but PWIN *[eta]adan).
All the accusative cases of naming (beginning with Mrs Almayer's opening call to dinner and extending to the long list of titles and names of Conrad's ships and men) point to a much more complex switching of scripts (and loyalties) than any switching between two supposedly self-contained "scriptworlds." So, for example, the romanized Malay that inaugurates Conrad's literary career is premised on a switching between many more "scriptworlds" than just the Arabic and the Roman (behind the opening address of Almayer's Folly and behind each of that novel's uses of the word "Tuan" there's also a switching between at least Buginese
, Javanese, and Chinese "scriptworlds.").
Indigenous place based cultural groups (Goebel, 2010), so named because of their regional locations, include the Javanese, Sundanese, Bantenese, Betawi, Tengger, Osing and Badui from Java; the Madurese from Madura; Malays, Batak, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Lampung and Kubu groups from Sumatra; the Dayak and Banjar from Kalimantan; Makassarese, Buginese
, Mandar, Minhasa, Gorontalonese, Toraja and Bajau from Sulawesi; the Balinese and Sasak from the Sunda Islands; Nuaulu, Manusela and Wemale from the Moluccas; and Dani, Bauzi and Asmat from Papua.
In addition to these ethnic groups, there are also Tionghoa/Chinese, Minang/Padangese, Buginese
, Javanese, Maduranese, Sundanese and other minority ethnic groups.
It is worth noting that traditionally the concept of Rewa is tightly related the value of siri' (local concept of shame and dignity among Makassarese and Buginese
, two major ethnic groups in South Sulawesi) that refers to positive qualities, such as showing courage in defending dignity, earning a lot of money or gaining a high level of knowledge and skills (Mattulada, 1979, 1998).
For approximately two years the shaykh personally led a force of about five thousand Bantenese, Makassarese, Javanese, and Buginese
followers in skirmishes against the Dutch (Azra 2006: 97).
In that regard, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's popularity was a significant enough a factor to entice Jusuf Kalla to drop out of the Golkar convention, forming what most observers contended was a dream presidential ticket--Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono representing Java and Jusuf Kalla, the Buginese
businessman from South Sulawesi, representing the outer provinces.
The "Maloh" are speakers of an Austronesian language which is distinctive in central Borneo and is closely related to Buginese
. Adelaar tentatively suggests that the original homeland of the "Maloh" was South Sulawesi (1994, p.
By the late 1920s, Indonesian nationalists had decided that this language, now to be called 'Indonesian', was the true national language; after that many 'big' languages like Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese and Buginese
were turned into 'dialects' or mere 'regional languages', though they are mostly older than 'Malay', and some have literary traditions much more impressive than that of Malay.