and Makassarese diaries', Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde 122:416-28.
Past scholars have often speculated on the motives or conditions that enabled Buginese
, and Wajo people in particular, to play such an effective diasporic role.
The first account is limited to a description of the stone tools, plant and animal remains, and human bones found in the limestone caverns that they inhabited prior their removal and resettlement by the Buginese
, but a subsequent account by Fritz Sarasin (1906) provided anthropometric data and photographs.
Labuan Bajo is often characterized as having been in the past a cluster of fishing villages populated mainly by people originating from other islands, such as Bajau (hence the name Labuan Bajo), and Buginese
from Sulawesi and Bimanese from Sumbawa, who over the centuries settled in various places around the coast of western Flores.
Indigenous place based cultural groups (Goebel, 2010), so named because of their regional locations, include the Javanese, Sundanese, Bantenese, Betawi, Tengger, Osing and Badui from Java; the Madurese from Madura; Malays, Batak, Minangkabau, Acehnese, Lampung and Kubu groups from Sumatra; the Dayak and Banjar from Kalimantan; Makassarese, Buginese
, Mandar, Minhasa, Gorontalonese, Toraja and Bajau from Sulawesi; the Balinese and Sasak from the Sunda Islands; Nuaulu, Manusela and Wemale from the Moluccas; and Dani, Bauzi and Asmat from Papua.
In addition to these ethnic groups, there are also Tionghoa/Chinese, Minang/Padangese, Buginese
, Javanese, Maduranese, Sundanese and other minority ethnic groups.
It is worth noting that traditionally the concept of Rewa is tightly related the value of siri' (local concept of shame and dignity among Makassarese and Buginese
, two major ethnic groups in South Sulawesi) that refers to positive qualities, such as showing courage in defending dignity, earning a lot of money or gaining a high level of knowledge and skills (Mattulada, 1979, 1998).
For approximately two years the shaykh personally led a force of about five thousand Bantenese, Makassarese, Javanese, and Buginese
followers in skirmishes against the Dutch (Azra 2006: 97).
In that regard, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's popularity was a significant enough a factor to entice Jusuf Kalla to drop out of the Golkar convention, forming what most observers contended was a dream presidential ticket--Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono representing Java and Jusuf Kalla, the Buginese
businessman from South Sulawesi, representing the outer provinces.
The "Maloh" are speakers of an Austronesian language which is distinctive in central Borneo and is closely related to Buginese
By the late 1920s, Indonesian nationalists had decided that this language, now to be called 'Indonesian', was the true national language; after that many 'big' languages like Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese and Buginese
were turned into 'dialects' or mere 'regional languages', though they are mostly older than 'Malay', and some have literary traditions much more impressive than that of Malay.
The two most likely sources of instability, as argued by the Australian National University academic, Alan Dupont, are 'divisions within the indigenous East Timorese population, and between the East Timorese and the Javanese and Buginese
migrant communities that have established themselves in the province over the past two decades'.