Bukovina


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Bukovina

(bo͞okəvē`nə), Rom. Bucovina, Ukr. Bukovyna, historic region of E Europe, in SW Ukraine and NE Romania. Traversed by the Carpathian Mts. and the upper Prut and Siretul rivers, it is heavily forested [Bukovina means "beechwood" in Romanian] and produces timber, textiles, grain, and livestock. Salt is produced in quantity; other mineral resources include manganese, iron, and copper. ChernivtsiChernivtsi
, Ger. Czernowitz, Romanian Cernauţi, Rus. Chernovtsy, city (1989 pop. 257,000), capital of Chernivtsi region, SW Ukraine, on the Prut River and in the Carpathian foothills.
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, in Ukraine, is the chief city. The population is largely Romanian in S Bukovina and Ukrainian in the north. Most of the region's Jews were exterminated during World War II. A part of the Roman province of Dacia, Bukovina was overrun after the 3d cent. A.D. by the Huns and other nomads. It later (10th–13th cent.) belonged to the Kievan state (see KievKiev
or Kyiv
, Ukrainian Kyyiv, Rus. Kiyev, city (1990 est. pop. 2,600,000) and municipality with the status of a region (oblast), capital of Ukraine and of Kiev region, a port on the Dnieper River.
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) and the Halych and Volhynia principalities. After the Mongols withdrew from Moldavia, Bukovina became (14th cent.) the nucleus of the Moldavian principality. The term Bukovina was first mentioned in an agreement concluded in 1412 between King Ladislaus II of Poland and Sigismund of Hungary. In 1514, Bukovina, then part of Moldavia, became tributary to the Turkish sultans. Ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Austria in 1775, it was at first a district of Galicia but in 1848 was made, as a titular duchy, a separate Austrian crownland. The region won limited autonomy from Austria, and in 1861 Chernivtsi was made the seat of a provincial diet. Bukovina became an object of irredentism when Romania achieved full independence in 1878. The country's boundaries encompassed SuceavaSuceava
, town (1990 pop. 107,988), NE Romania, in Bukovina, on the Suceava River. It is a commercial center and has industries that manufacture food products, paper, wood products, and cellulose.
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, the ancient capital of Moldavia, but Chernivtsi was incorporated into Austria. With the dissolution of the Austrian empire in 1918, the Ukrainian national council at Chernivtsi voted the incorporation of N Bukovina into the West Ukrainian Democratic Republic. The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919) gave only the southern part of Bukovina to Romania, but the subsequent Treaty of Sèvres awarded Romania the entire region. In a treaty of June, 1940, Romania ceded the northern part of Bukovina (c.2,140 sq mi/5,540 sq km) to the USSR, which incorporated it into the Ukrainian SSR. Although Romanian troops reoccupied N Bukovina during World War II, the Romanian peace treaty of 1947 confirmed Soviet possession of the area. N Bukovina now forms part of the Chernivtsi oblast in Ukraine. The remainder of the area (c.1,890 sq mi/4,895 sq km) forms one of the historical provinces of Romania and is part of the administrative region of Suceava.

Bukovina

, Bucovina
a region of E central Europe, part of the NE Carpathians: the north was seized by the Soviet Union (1940) and later became part of Ukraine; the south remained Romanian
References in periodicals archive ?
The results of our study provide evidence for associations between ACE (I/D), eNOS (894T>G) polymorphism and EAH and LVH patterns in North Bukovina (Western Ukraine) population.
Romanian troops during World War II participated in the destruction of the Jewish communities of Bessarabia and Transnistria (both now comprising the independent Republic of Moldova) and Bukovina (now part of Ukraine).
Deletant establishes convincingly that while Antonescu may have had little choice other than to remain at Germany's side after recovering the lands awarded to the Soviet Union in 1940, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia, his decision to cross the Dniester was informed at least as much by his messianic determination to defeat Bolshevism, which he declared to be "the great enemy of civilization" (p.
Another expression of selective Holocaust denial is the acknowledgement of only the tragedy of the Jews from Basarabia and Bukovina.
Meanwhile, in December 1915, the Russians launched a two-army offensive against the Austro-Hungarian right flank near Czernovitz in the Bukovina.
Romania joined Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, largely with the aim of regaining Bessarabia and Bukovina, which had been seized by the Soviet Union in 1940 as a result of the secret agreements contained in the German-Soviet Pact by which the German and Soviet foreign ministers Ribbentrop and Molotov effectively partitioned Eastern Europe.
in line with the recommendation later contained in the Wiesel Commission's report, the Government established an annual Holocaust Remembrance Day to take place on or around October 9, the anniversary of the first deportation of Jews from southern Bukovina to Transnistria.
After World War I, Bukovina, the country of my birth, was annexed to Romania and the official language became Romanian.
I scanned maps for mysterious Bessarabia, which I adorned with palm trees, then the adjacent Bukovina, of which it was the capital, until I'd pinned it down: Czernowitz, city on the River Bug, Cernauti, city whose name kept changing, Chernivts, city of five languages, Cernauti, city cleansed by Nazis, Soviets, Rumanians, Cernivtsi, like Papa--the irrecoverable past tangled and clotted in the present.
Hence "Leader of the Nation" General Ion Antonescu joined the German invasion of the Soviet Union primarily in order to reclaim Bessarabia and northern Bukovina that the Russians had seized a year before.
It is notable, also, that the essays on the Jewish literary culture of Galicia and the Bukovina in this volume are of a far higher standard than many of the nostalgic, whimsical, and austrophile writings on this area.