Bulgarian language

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Bulgarian language,

member of the South Slavic group of the Slavonic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languagesSlavic languages,
also called Slavonic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Because the Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European
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). Bulgarian is the native tongue of some 9 million people, most of whom live in Bulgaria, where it is the official language. It is also spoken to some extent in bordering and nearby countries. Although the Bulgars were originally a Turkic-speaking people from Asia, they merged with the Slavic tribes whom they conquered in the 7th cent. A.D. in the territory of present-day Bulgaria and took over their Slavic language. Old Bulgarian is an alternate name for the literary and liturgical language of the 9th to 11th cent. A.D. that is usually called Old Church Slavonic (see Church SlavonicChurch Slavonic,
language belonging to the South Slavic group of the Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languages). Although it is still the liturgical language of most branches of the Orthodox Eastern Church, Church Slavonic is extinct today
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). From Old Church Slavonic, in Bulgaria, a later local form known as Bulgarian Church Slavonic evolved, which was current from the 12th to the 15th cent. The Turkish conquest of Bulgaria in 1396 seriously hampered the development of the Bulgarian language for several centuries.

After the Bulgarians achieved independence in 1878, a modern literary language based on the vernacular came into its own. Modern Bulgarian, which is generally said to date from the 16th cent., borrowed many words from Greek and Turkish during the period of Turkish domination; more recently it has borrowed words from Russian, French, and German. The Bulgarian language lacks definite rules for stress; therefore, the accent of every word must be learned individually. Unlike most other Slavic tongues, Bulgarian has a definite article. This is in the form of a suffix joined to the noun. Another difference between Bulgarian and most other Slavic languages is that Bulgarian has almost completely dropped the numerous case forms of the noun. It uses position and prepositions (like English) to indicate grammatical relationships in a sentence instead of cases (like Russian). Despite these differences, Bulgarian closely resembles the other Slavic languages, especially with regard to grammar. A modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet is used for writing Bulgarian.


See S. B. Bernshtein, Short Grammatical Sketch of the Bulgarian Language (tr. 1952); H. I. Aronson, Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology (1968); C. Rudin, Aspects of Bulgarian Syntax (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
Bank guarantee for participation should be submitted in original or original Bulgarian language and translation, if issued in a foreign language.
In all settlements with compact Bulgarian population, there are kindergartens, schools and colleges where the Bulgarian language is taught.
Particulars of military aviation events in Bulgaria have been obscure for a variety of reasons, not the least of which are the Bulgarian language and the lack of access to primary-source material.
For example, in 1999, in the agreement signed by Ljubco Georgievski and Ivan Kostov, Prime Ministers of Macedonia and Bulgaria at the time, it is said that the agreement was written in the Bulgarian language based on the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria and in the Macedonian language based on the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, which was seen as an attempt of Bulgaria to disassociate itself from the recognition of the Macedonian language.
Second, she was speaking in Hungarian, which does not seem quite in line with Article 133 of Bulgaria's Election Code, which requires that all election campaigning be conducted in the Bulgarian language (her remarks were translated into Bulgarian, for those many in the Kalfin camp and elsewhere among this country's electorate who may not have a grasp of Magyar languages).
The interconnected relationship of medieval Bulgarian language, letters, religion, culture, and law with the Byzantine culture from which it derived is a central thesis of this major and wide-ranging work.
18 /PRNewswire/ -- BusinessWeek, the best-selling global business magazine and CASH Media Group, a publishing company based in Sofia, announced today an agreement to publish a Bulgarian language edition of BusinessWeek.
These weaknesses are perhaps due to Walker's complete reliance on her collaborators--reportedly because she is not adequately versed in the Bulgarian language.
Interpreting (simultaneous and consecutive) of Bulgarian foreign language / s language / s and foreign / s language / s of the Bulgarian language.
aIt will not only ensure the preserving of Bulgarian language and culture among our compatriots there but will also be a step towards reinvigorating economic activity, tourism and links with Bulgaria,a said Stanishev.
All lessons are carried out in German (including German history, maths, science, geography, arts and music) except Bulgarian language and history lessons, other language classes (English, French and Spanish) and various sports.
As for the languages in which the agreement would be signed, the same formula of the declaration is being proposed, "in two original copies, each in the official languages of both countries--the Macedonian language in adherence with the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia and the Bulgarian language in adherence with the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria".

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