Bulgarian language


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Bulgarian language,

member of the South Slavic group of the Slavonic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languagesSlavic languages,
also called Slavonic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Because the Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European
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). Bulgarian is the native tongue of some 9 million people, most of whom live in Bulgaria, where it is the official language. It is also spoken to some extent in bordering and nearby countries. Although the Bulgars were originally a Turkic-speaking people from Asia, they merged with the Slavic tribes whom they conquered in the 7th cent. A.D. in the territory of present-day Bulgaria and took over their Slavic language. Old Bulgarian is an alternate name for the literary and liturgical language of the 9th to 11th cent. A.D. that is usually called Old Church Slavonic (see Church SlavonicChurch Slavonic,
language belonging to the South Slavic group of the Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languages). Although it is still the liturgical language of most branches of the Orthodox Eastern Church, Church Slavonic is extinct today
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). From Old Church Slavonic, in Bulgaria, a later local form known as Bulgarian Church Slavonic evolved, which was current from the 12th to the 15th cent. The Turkish conquest of Bulgaria in 1396 seriously hampered the development of the Bulgarian language for several centuries.

After the Bulgarians achieved independence in 1878, a modern literary language based on the vernacular came into its own. Modern Bulgarian, which is generally said to date from the 16th cent., borrowed many words from Greek and Turkish during the period of Turkish domination; more recently it has borrowed words from Russian, French, and German. The Bulgarian language lacks definite rules for stress; therefore, the accent of every word must be learned individually. Unlike most other Slavic tongues, Bulgarian has a definite article. This is in the form of a suffix joined to the noun. Another difference between Bulgarian and most other Slavic languages is that Bulgarian has almost completely dropped the numerous case forms of the noun. It uses position and prepositions (like English) to indicate grammatical relationships in a sentence instead of cases (like Russian). Despite these differences, Bulgarian closely resembles the other Slavic languages, especially with regard to grammar. A modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet is used for writing Bulgarian.

Bibliography

See S. B. Bernshtein, Short Grammatical Sketch of the Bulgarian Language (tr. 1952); H. I. Aronson, Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology (1968); C. Rudin, Aspects of Bulgarian Syntax (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
The new software was presented by Minister Lilyana Pavlova and Professor Svetla Koeva, Director of the Bulgarian Language Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
Tenders are invited for The subject of this public procurement is the periodic delivery of pre-requisites for specialized literature, fiction, teaching aids and educational materials, educational games, decoration materials, accessories and requisites in order to provide the necessary goods requested by the pedagogues - heads of groups for additional activities in Bulgarian language for pupils whose mother tongue is not Bulgarian at primary and lower secondary level, from pedagogues - heads of "development workshops" - theater workshops st and literary compositions by experts - psychologists involved in the project.
The agreement will be signed in Macedonian language pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia and in Bulgarian language pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria", said Zaharieva.
The agreement will be signed in the Macedonian language pursuant to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia and the Bulgarian language pursuant to the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria," Zakharieva said.
The topics include reviews and a case study of creating believable and effective artificial intelligence agents for games and simulations, letter and word frequency and the mathematical modeling of the frequency distributions in the modern Bulgarian language, a decomposition theorem of generalized interval-valued intuitionist fuzzy sets, a new efficient evolutionary algorithm applied to optimal reactive power dispatch, and the multi-objective optimization of bioethanol production through hydrolysis using Hopfield-enhanced differential evolution.
Second, she was speaking in Hungarian, which does not seem quite in line with Article 133 of Bulgaria's Election Code, which requires that all election campaigning be conducted in the Bulgarian language (her remarks were translated into Bulgarian, for those many in the Kalfin camp and elsewhere among this country's electorate who may not have a grasp of Magyar languages).
The interconnected relationship of medieval Bulgarian language, letters, religion, culture, and law with the Byzantine culture from which it derived is a central thesis of this major and wide-ranging work.
The text is a part of the basic curriculum for all Bulgarian schoolchildren and Konstantinov is highly revered there; for students of Bulgarian language in North American universities, the book is almost always taught in the first year of study.
There are efforts under way to introduce instruction in argumentation in the public schools' Bulgarian language arts curriculum in order to align Bulgarian public pedagogy with EU educational standards for communicative competence (Padeshka, 2004).
This program will provide one-month grants to scholars wishing to improve their knowledge of the Bulgarian language and culture.
These weaknesses are perhaps due to Walker's complete reliance on her collaborators--reportedly because she is not adequately versed in the Bulgarian language.
He delivered his whole speech in Bulgarian language and recited a poem by the famous Bulgarian poet, novelist and playwright, Ivan Vazov often referred to as "the Patriarch of Bulgarian literature".

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