Bulgarian language


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Bulgarian language,

member of the South Slavic group of the Slavonic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languagesSlavic languages,
also called Slavonic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Because the Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European
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). Bulgarian is the native tongue of some 9 million people, most of whom live in Bulgaria, where it is the official language. It is also spoken to some extent in bordering and nearby countries. Although the Bulgars were originally a Turkic-speaking people from Asia, they merged with the Slavic tribes whom they conquered in the 7th cent. A.D. in the territory of present-day Bulgaria and took over their Slavic language. Old Bulgarian is an alternate name for the literary and liturgical language of the 9th to 11th cent. A.D. that is usually called Old Church Slavonic (see Church SlavonicChurch Slavonic,
language belonging to the South Slavic group of the Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languages). Although it is still the liturgical language of most branches of the Orthodox Eastern Church, Church Slavonic is extinct today
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). From Old Church Slavonic, in Bulgaria, a later local form known as Bulgarian Church Slavonic evolved, which was current from the 12th to the 15th cent. The Turkish conquest of Bulgaria in 1396 seriously hampered the development of the Bulgarian language for several centuries.

After the Bulgarians achieved independence in 1878, a modern literary language based on the vernacular came into its own. Modern Bulgarian, which is generally said to date from the 16th cent., borrowed many words from Greek and Turkish during the period of Turkish domination; more recently it has borrowed words from Russian, French, and German. The Bulgarian language lacks definite rules for stress; therefore, the accent of every word must be learned individually. Unlike most other Slavic tongues, Bulgarian has a definite article. This is in the form of a suffix joined to the noun. Another difference between Bulgarian and most other Slavic languages is that Bulgarian has almost completely dropped the numerous case forms of the noun. It uses position and prepositions (like English) to indicate grammatical relationships in a sentence instead of cases (like Russian). Despite these differences, Bulgarian closely resembles the other Slavic languages, especially with regard to grammar. A modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet is used for writing Bulgarian.

Bibliography

See S. B. Bernshtein, Short Grammatical Sketch of the Bulgarian Language (tr. 1952); H. I. Aronson, Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology (1968); C. Rudin, Aspects of Bulgarian Syntax (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
Kliment Ohridski and the Center of the Bulgarian Language and Culture at the Baku Slavic University.
There is a need for a comprehensive system and continuity in Bulgarian education around the world - from pre-school age to university, lecturers on Bulgarian language and the development of Bulgarian studies.
It is yet to be clarified whether this school will be a very intensive study of Bulgarian language or will be a private Bulgarian school, "said Minister Zaharieva.
While German is the widely spoken language in the EU, Bulgarian ambassador Metin Kazak said the Bulgarian language is the only language in Europe which uses Cyrillic alphabets.
"The agreement will be signed in Macedonian language pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia and in Bulgarian language pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria", said Zaharieva.
"The agreement will be signed in the Macedonian language pursuant to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia and the Bulgarian language pursuant to the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria," Zakharieva said.
The interconnected relationship of medieval Bulgarian language, letters, religion, culture, and law with the Byzantine culture from which it derived is a central thesis of this major and wide-ranging work.
The text is a part of the basic curriculum for all Bulgarian schoolchildren and Konstantinov is highly revered there; for students of Bulgarian language in North American universities, the book is almost always taught in the first year of study.
Interestingly, one commentator in the Bulgarian language media has argued that the dramatic nature of the arrest has served as a diversion from the serious nature of the crime allegedly committed by the former minister; however, that is strange logic, given that the former minister--we must call him that and not, as the prosecutor did, "absolute criminal" is entitled to be considered not guilty until proven otherwise; and most of all, everyone concerned would do well to remember that manipulation of an arrest to serve anything other than the ends of justice is a grave matter indeed, and ultimately does no good to the cause of bringing down the bribers and the bribed in a way more permanent than a temporary sojourn on their knees.
There are efforts under way to introduce instruction in argumentation in the public schools' Bulgarian language arts curriculum in order to align Bulgarian public pedagogy with EU educational standards for communicative competence (Padeshka, 2004).
This program will provide one-month grants to scholars wishing to improve their knowledge of the Bulgarian language and culture.
The poems assembled in Penelope will give English-speaking readers an accurate idea of Bagryana's craft and esthetics, although the quintessential characteristics of her poetry (having to do with the whole range of the genius of the Bulgarian language) do not lend themselves much to translation.

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