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a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense); the basic population of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians also live in regions of Rumania, Greece, Yugoslavia, Turkey, the Ukrainian SSR, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia that border on Bulgaria, as well as in North and South America and in Australia. The number of Bulgarians in Bulgaria is more than 7.2 million persons (end of 1965). Outside the country, the Bulgarians in the USSR make up the largest group (351,000, according to the 1970 census). They speak Bulgarian. The majority of believers profess Orthodoxy. (Christianity was adopted in Bulgaria in A.D. 865 from Byzantium.) Some believers are also Protestants and Catholics. There is also a group of Bulgarian Muslims who live mainly in the Rhodope Mountains. Their ancestors were forcibly converted to Islam by the Turks in the 16th to 18th centuries. Bulgarians belong to the group of South Slavic peoples. The Slavic tribes that settled in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries and assimilated the local Thracian tribes played a major role in the ethnogeny of the Bulgarians. The Turkicspeaking proto-Bulgarians, who were related to the Bulgars, were another component in the formation of the Bulgarians. In the second half of the seventh century the proto-Bulgarians penetrated into the Balkans and together with the Slavic tribes formed a Slavic-Bulgar state in 680. Toward the ninth and tenth centuries the inhabitants of the First Bulgarian Empire were consolidated into a Slavic-speaking people who began to be called Bulgarians. The culture of the Bulgarians was formulated through a process of complex interaction of the ancient cultures of proto-Bulgarians, Thra-cians, and Slavs, who had been considerably influenced by the ancient tradition and culture of Byzantium in the Balkans.

The 500-year Ottoman yoke (from the end of the 14th century to 1878) retarded the national development of the Bulgarians. Their renaissance began at the end of the 18th century with the development of capitalist relations in the country; the Bulgarian nation began to be formed. The Bulgarians’ active struggle against Turkish oppression and also against the Greek merchant bourgeoisie and clergy, which had exerted a great influence in the country, contributed greatly to the rise of their national consciousness and the unification of their people.

The vigorous dissemination of professional and urban culture among broad strata of the people throughout the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the close cultural contacts between the separate areas of the country, and also the revival of some traditional customs, which—changing their content in accordance with the new conditions of life—are entering into the developing socialist culture of Bulgaria, are characteristic of the national development of the Bulgarians.


Narody Zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964. (Bibliography, pp. 917–18.)
Istoriia Bolgarii, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1954–55.
Istoriia na Bulgariia, vols. 1–2. Sofia, 1954–55.


References in periodicals archive ?
He referred to the deep historical and cultural relations between Iranian and Bulgarian people and noted that the ground is ready for promotion of ties between Tehran and Sofia.
State officials and Bulgarian people lay wreaths and flowers at the monument in Sofia, the country's capital and largest city, in homage to those who perished for Bulgaria's freedom.
We always try to pay our homeland back its favor and convey the true image of the situation in Syria to the Bulgarian people," Dr.
Also, the envoy conveyed to President Plevneliev the greetings of His Majesty King Abdullah and his wishes for further progress and prosperity for the Bulgarian people.
Indeed, this was already the second time this year that the Bulgarian people gathered in the streets to protest against their political leaders 6 in February, the entire government resigned, including former Prime Minister Boiko Borisov, after nationwide protests railed against high electricity prices and the austerity budget.
Sarandev to help the Bulgarian people to know more about Sri Lanka particularly of its natural beauty, cultural and historical heritage, Gems and jewellary, tea etc.
If the Bulgarian people want an independent economy, control of their energy requirements, low cost and low carbon energy with minimal impact-shale-gas would appear to be one option worth careful consideration.
ANKARA, Oct 4, 2010 (TUR) -- Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Monday, "we wish that Bulgarian citizens of Turkish descent would successfully integrate with Bulgarian society and contribute to development of Bulgarian people.
Gjorgje Ivanov, the Macedonian president, said: "The whole Macedonian nation feels the sorrow for the loss and our condolences go to the families and to the Bulgarian people.
Bulgarian Foreign Minister Ivailo Kalfin stated that his country is determined to have good neighborly relations with Macedonia, but that Macedonia should respect and not lay claim to the historical and cultural values of the Bulgarian people.
As President Bush said following the historic senate vote: "Americans have always considered the Bulgarian people to be our friends, and we will be proud to call you our allies.
His greatest, though unfinished, work, Kurvava pesen (1913; "Song of Blood"), is an epic poem that describes the sacrifices of the Bulgarian people in their struggle for independence.

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