Bulgarian language

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Bulgarian language,

member of the South Slavic group of the Slavonic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languagesSlavic languages,
also called Slavonic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Because the Slavic group of languages seems to be closer to the Baltic group than to any other, some scholars combine the two in a Balto-Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European
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). Bulgarian is the native tongue of some 9 million people, most of whom live in Bulgaria, where it is the official language. It is also spoken to some extent in bordering and nearby countries. Although the Bulgars were originally a Turkic-speaking people from Asia, they merged with the Slavic tribes whom they conquered in the 7th cent. A.D. in the territory of present-day Bulgaria and took over their Slavic language. Old Bulgarian is an alternate name for the literary and liturgical language of the 9th to 11th cent. A.D. that is usually called Old Church Slavonic (see Church SlavonicChurch Slavonic,
language belonging to the South Slavic group of the Slavic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Slavic languages). Although it is still the liturgical language of most branches of the Orthodox Eastern Church, Church Slavonic is extinct today
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). From Old Church Slavonic, in Bulgaria, a later local form known as Bulgarian Church Slavonic evolved, which was current from the 12th to the 15th cent. The Turkish conquest of Bulgaria in 1396 seriously hampered the development of the Bulgarian language for several centuries.

After the Bulgarians achieved independence in 1878, a modern literary language based on the vernacular came into its own. Modern Bulgarian, which is generally said to date from the 16th cent., borrowed many words from Greek and Turkish during the period of Turkish domination; more recently it has borrowed words from Russian, French, and German. The Bulgarian language lacks definite rules for stress; therefore, the accent of every word must be learned individually. Unlike most other Slavic tongues, Bulgarian has a definite article. This is in the form of a suffix joined to the noun. Another difference between Bulgarian and most other Slavic languages is that Bulgarian has almost completely dropped the numerous case forms of the noun. It uses position and prepositions (like English) to indicate grammatical relationships in a sentence instead of cases (like Russian). Despite these differences, Bulgarian closely resembles the other Slavic languages, especially with regard to grammar. A modified form of the Cyrillic alphabet is used for writing Bulgarian.

Bibliography

See S. B. Bernshtein, Short Grammatical Sketch of the Bulgarian Language (tr. 1952); H. I. Aronson, Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology (1968); C. Rudin, Aspects of Bulgarian Syntax (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
Election authorities have barred people other than voters themselves from filling their own Bulgarian-language declarations as friends and relatives accompanying some people in the queue have engaged in such practices more actively in the first round.
On the Bulgarian-language version of her official blog, Commissioner Georgieva expressed sympathy with the protests and gave the current government little chance for survival.
One of the left-wing intellectuals, Anton Donchev, gave an interview to Bulgarian-language media be-moaning the state of the church, bemoaning the lack of people who want to become monks, decrying the church's lack of outreach to young people.
I cannot eat candles," the Bulgarian-language Trud newspaper quoted an unnamed priest as saying.
The development follows reports in Bulgarian-language media that Germany and Russia had discussed and agreed that Moscow could back a new possible candidate for the UN Secretary General office.
On matters musical, there is an anonymously-authored and rather nasty one doing the rounds of the internet, satirising the ruling party's Plevneliev to a Bulgarian-language version of that 1960s hit Puppet on a String.
A Supporters wore hats marked by the hashtag "[ETH][ETH]*[ETH] N[ETH]1/4[ETH][ETH] [ETH]", a Bulgarian-language version of #IAmBSP, a slogan that has sparked controversy among the public due to the party's mixed record as heir to totalitarian Bulgarian Communist Party.
By Friday evening, a not unsympathetic Bulgarian-language media was reporting that the hundreds of tourists stranded after their Black Sea holidays were getting frustrated, hungry and thirsty.
Its Bulgarian-language version (the English one is yet to be uploaded) says that, "regarding suspicions arising with regard to many transfers received/ordered through the money transferring system (mostly Western Union) reports start to emerge of operations conducted by people who are probably connected to funding of terrorism (of the activity of so-called Islamic State).
Seven ministries, apart from the Interior Ministry, had said that some of the structures under their supervision received donations in the January 2010-June 2011 period, Bulgarian-language media reported on the basis of an investigation by news website Mediapool.
The text's Bulgarian-language version of the report is <a href="http://www.
According to a report in Bulgarian-language mass-circulation daily 24 Chassa, the list of tour operators that Sunny Beach hotels will refuse to have dealings with includes small-scale firms from the United Kingdom, Germany and Scandinavia.

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