The consequence is that the back flow from the delivery volume due to the incomplete filling of the chamber generates high-pressure oscillations, being the equivalent bulk modulus
coincident with the value of the pure oil (very stiff system).
Since the waveguide is the host frame of unit cell, the effective bulk modulus
[B.sub.eff] is defined as
In order to further predict theoretically the mechanical properties such as hardness ([H.sub.V]) and crack, the bulk modulus
(B), shear modulus (G), hardness ([H.sub.V]), and universal elastic anisotropy index ([A.sup.U]) values are shown in Table 7.
where [epsilon] is the volume strain, [T.sub.0] is the initial temperature, T - [T.sub.0] is the change in temperature, [[beta].sub.b] is the volume thermal expansion coefficient of solid skeleton, [P.sub.e] is the effective pressure, and [K.sub.d] is the bulk modulus
Moreover, a better understanding of variations in fluid density and effective bulk modulus
is thus essential for modeling and simulations of such FTPS struts in order to achieve reasonably accurate predictions of stiffness and damping properties of the struts.
The bulk modulus
appears to be less sensitive than the shear modulus to the relaxation that occurs after the application of the homogeneous strain.
The GGA methods are able to predict the ground state properties (lattice constants, elastic moduli, and bulk modulus
) of alpha uranium bulk.
The measure of this compressibility is called the bulk modulus
of the fluid and is defined by the differential equation
From this, Macken  derives an "interactive bulk modulus
of spacetime", which we identify with the spacetime continuum bulk modulus
, given by
Osmium has a low compressibility and has high bulk modulus
. Powdered osmium when exposed to the air becomes highly toxic in nature.
where [V.sub.w] = velocity of the pressure wave in the line, in feet per second; K = bulk modulus
of water (300,000 lbs./sq.
As an example, we calculated two cases with different values of fluid salinity, viscosity and solid bulk modulus
in a full space model and a half space model, respectively.