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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
He said the Indian police arrested Bulla and brutally tortured him in custody resulting in his martyrdom on February 15, 1975 in Srinagar Central Jail.
Since the ethmoidal bulla is the largest anterior cell, [14] it is implicit that its average area should not exceed 2.1 cm.
Cuando las secreciones septicas acumuladas a presion en el oido medio no pueden drenar por el conducto auditivo causan lisis osea y rompen la bulla timpanica, para luego drenar hacia la cara (Figura 1-A) o comprometer la articulacion temporomandibular, lo que se manifiesta con dolor al masticar y renuencia a abrir la boca (Hardie et al.
The bulla believed to bear Isaiah's signature was discovered three meters away from seal of the king.
Meanwhile, Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party, Jammu and Kashmir National Front, Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Freedom League and Jammu and Kashmir Peoples League in their statements also paid tributes to Ghulam Mohammad Bulla. They said that Bulla was martyred for opposing infamous Indira-Abdullah accord.
In this study, we introduce an alternative convenient procedure named intrabullous adhesion pexia (IBAP) involving computer tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous pulmonary bulla centesis, IBAP with biomedical fibrin sealant, and closed intracavity drainage under continuous negative pressure.
Bulla spread###Present###29 (93.5%)###2 (50%)###1 (50%)###0###0###0###0###0
The mean times to reach the bulla and to achieve cochleostomy were 4.3 (2-13 min) and 7.5 min (3.5-22 min), respectively.
The ethmoid bulla that has been identified (figure, A) is entered anteriorly with the microdebrider, and the opening is enlarged circumferentially (figure, B).
Keywords: Otitis media; otitis, total ear canal ablation (TECA); tympanic bulla osteoctomy (TBO); tympanic membrane