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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
was going " Magistrates heard that Ms Bullas' friend Alexandra Howarth witnessed what was happening to her as she left a nearby takeaway with a tray of cheesy chips and donner meat in her hands.
The mean times to reach the bulla and to achieve cochleostomy were 4.3 (2-13 min) and 7.5 min (3.5-22 min), respectively.
Bullas joined the chain at 17 and soon rose from shop-floor junior to a key role in its head office.
He said Mr Bullas, of Edgbaston, Birmingham, died of crush asphyxia.
I hope my portfolio, which is available to view on my website, shows that the ambitions I had all those years ago have borne fruit and are continuing to grow," says Matt Bullas. "I'm looking to attract a breed of user who wants to succeed in the online marketplace, and want to distribute everything I've learned during my time in the digital marketplace to my followers.
Bullas and Haywood are both 19, have EPL experience and have represented Bri tain at the Under-20 World Championships.
Mr Bullas added: "This increased social media interaction is also occurring in parallel with an increase in mobile website traffic, with around 15 per cent of website traffic currently coming from mobiles as more people are staying in touch on the go."
HONOUR: Matt Bullas receives a High Sheriff's Award for Enterprise from the High Sheriff of Cheshire, Diana Barbour AMBITIOUS: Matt Bullas worked his way up through supermarket chain Safeway before founding his own business
Mr Bullas's resignation was triggered by the fact that the deal will result in his brother Steven joining the Peacock Group board in his capacity as chief executive of Bon Marche.
161015FHAIR ANDY CATCHPOOL | Paula Butler (before with long locks) and after her cut from which she is donating her plaited hair to help cancer |victims after her cut by Sam Bullas at XTG hairdressers in the Byram Arcade.
Mr Bullas, who was divorced and had no children, was found dead on the shop floor of family plastics firm BG Bullas Ltd, of which he was managing director, in Fletcher Street, Lye, near Stourbridge, on April 10.
Prosecutor Justin Bullas said: "The cubicle was searched, the smoke alarm was covered up with a napkin and ash was in the sink."