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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a round metal seal made of lead, silver, or gold, which was usually used in the Middle Ages to fasten papal, imperial, and royal acts (documents) by being tied to the document by a string; the act itself, with the bulla tied to it, was also called a bulla. [In English the act is called a bull.] The most important royal and imperial decrees, fastened with golden seals, came to be called Golden Bulls (such as the Golden Bull of 1222, issued by the Hungarian King Andrew II, and the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire). In later centuries, up until modern times, the term “bulla” was used to designate only the most important acts issued by the popes of Rome.

The supplementary historical discipline known as sphragistics studies medieval bull seals.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A circular metal boss used by the ancient Romans as a decoration for fastening parts of doors; often highly ornamented.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
(171.) LAC, box 2, folder "Earliest letters from a case in private room 1909 etc.", letter with handwritten inscription "not sent" dated 11 January 1910 from Buller to Dr.
The two women decided to go to Buller's flat in Baguley to ask for the money back, on February 13 last year.
Buller's much larger force so easily: "Passed Ladysmith covered with breastworks of stone made carefully and evidently designed by foreign engineers." Like most of the British officers in South Africa, Steele's only actual fighting experience was on a small scale against poorly armed opponents and he found it hard to believe that the Boers were a sophisticated enemy.
Mr Buller said: "We were never notified about it at all from Linden Homes, the sales people on site didn't know it was there when I asked them last week, so how I was meant to know it was there, I have no idea.
After reading law at the University of Sheffield and graduating with first class honours in 1959, he joined Buller Jeffries in 1965 and became its senior partner in 1973.
One area of the Buller plateau region that is of great concern to Hague is Whareatea West, which is proposed for opencast mining as part of the plan.
"He had Bell on the canvas twice in the first round and 30 seconds in to the second the referee stepped in to halt the contest," said Buller.
The quintet went into the recording studio with producer Ed Buller (Suede, Pulp, Spiritualized) over the summer and recorded Weather Warning in Belgium.
Swansea City fan James Buller and Ospreys fan Nicola held their wedding reception at the Liberty Stadium, Swansea
and headed by Buller. Industry general counsel companies including Ashland Inc., Cytec Industries Inc., DuPont, Hexion Inc., Huntsman Corporation, SABIC and The Lubrizol Corporation, the even was an invitation-only conference brought together more than 30 general counsel, chief legal officers and other company legal executives.
The Stockton family firm Francis Brown Ltd is on trial over Mr Buller's tragic death.