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Burgos(bo͞or`gōs), city (1990 pop. 163,507), capital of Burgos prov., N Spain, in Castile and Léon, on a mountainous plateau c.2,800 ft (850 m) above sea level, overlooking the Arlanzón River. Normally it has among the coldest winters of any Spanish city. It is an important trade and tourist center with some manufacturing. It was one of the ancient capitals of Castile but is chiefly known for its outstanding architecture and great historic tradition. Founded c.855, it was the seat of the county of Castile under the kings of León and became the capital of the kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand I (1035). The royal residence was moved (1087) to Toledo, and Burgos lost some of its cultural importance. In the civil war of 1936–39, Burgos was the capital of Franco's regime. Its most notable building is the cathedral of white limestone, begun in 1221, one of the finest examples of Gothic architecture in Europe; its lofty, filigree spires dominate the city. The CidCid
or Cid Campeador
[Span.,=lord conqueror], d. 1099, Spanish soldier and national hero, whose real name was Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar. Under Ferdinand I and Sancho II of Castile he distinguished himself while fighting against the Moors, but Alfonso VI
..... Click the link for more information. , a native of Burgos, is buried in the cathedral. Among the many other landmarks are the castle, atop a hill overlooking the city; the Gothic Church of San Esteban, and the Arco de Santa María, a 16th-century gateway leading to the cathedral.
a city in northern Spain in the region of Old Castile on the Arlanzón River (a tributary of the Duero). Administrative center of the province of Burgos. Population, 104, 000 (1968).
Burgos is an important transportation junction and commercial center. It is a focal point for the wool industry and the production of artificial fibers. There are also food-processing, chemical, timber, furniture, and cellulose-paper factories in the city.
Burgos was founded at the end of the ninth century during the Reconquista. In the tenth century it became the center of a county by the same name, which was part of the Kingdom of Navarre. From the 11th to the 13th centuries Burgos was the residence of the Castilian kings. During the Middle Ages it was one of the major economic centers of Spain. The inhabitants of Burgos took an active part in the Comuneros Uprising (1520-21). Toward the end of the 16th century the city lost its importance. Between 1936 and 1939 the government of the fascist rebels was based in Burgos.
Burgos has preserved its irregular medieval plan, the ruins of a Roman fort, city walls from the 11th through the 14th century, and several buildings in the Gothic and plater-esque styles. The major monuments are the Gothic cathedral (13th-16th centuries), the Church of San Esteban (1280-1350), the church at the Miraflores Monastery (1454-88), the palace Casa del Cordón (plateresque, late 15th century), and the town hall (1791, architect V. Rodrigues). There is an archaeological museum in the palace Casa de Miranda (1545).