Burlingame, Anson

(redirected from Burlingame Treaty)
Also found in: Wikipedia.

Burlingame, Anson

Burlingame, Anson (bûrˈlĭng-gām), 1820–70, American diplomat, b. New Berlin, N.Y. He became a lawyer in Boston and later (1855–61) a Congressman. Defeated for reelection, he was made (1861) minister to China. By his tact and understanding of Chinese opposition to the autocratic methods of foreigners in the treaty ports, he won a place as adviser to the Chinese government. In 1867, China sent him as head of a mission to visit foreign lands in order to secure information and sign treaties of amity. He visited Washington, London, and capitals on the Continent. One result was a treaty between China and the United States, supplementary to the 1858 treaty. This, usually called the Burlingame Treaty, was signed in 1868. It was a treaty of friendship based on Western principles of international law. One clause encouraged Chinese immigration—laborers were then much in demand in the West; later the heavy influx of Chinese under its provisions caused friction on the West Coast and led to the exclusion of Chinese immigrants (see Chinese exclusion).

Bibliography

See biography by F. W. Williams (1912, repr. 1972).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Burlingame, Anson

(1820–70) U.S. representative, diplomat; born in New Berlin, N.Y. He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (Free-Soil, Mass.; 1855–59, Repub., Mass.; 1859–61). He was ambassador to China (1861–67) where he deeply impressed the Chinese with his integrity and helpfulness. In 1867, China appointed him the head of their first diplomatic mission to Europe. He died in St. Petersburg, Russia.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
These principles were poignantly embedded in the Burlingame Treaty of 1868.
While they both agreed with the principal features of the policy which the United States and western powers pursued toward the Qing Empire, Burlingame displayed extraordinary skills in drafting eight additional articles, which supplemented the 1858 Treaty of Tientsin to form the Burlingame Treaty, also known as the Seward-Burlingame Treaty.
(1.) Chinese Exclusion was enacted within the context of the federal government having made two major policy changes in 1868, formally declaring "the inherent and inalienable right of man to change his home and allegiance" in the Burlingame Treaty with China, and, as part of post-Civil War Reconstruction work, ratifying the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, to affirm "due process" and "equal protection under the law" for all persons.
In passing the Exclusion Act, Congress rejected the spirit behind the 1868 Burlingame Treaty with China that declared a person had an "inherent and unalienable right to change his home and allegiance." Instead, the act reflected the terms of a new treaty--the Angell Treaty--that the U.S.
Lacking political power, Chinese found that the Burlingame Treaty of 1868, which guaranteed Chinese residents "the same privileges, immunities, and exemptions" extended to natives of other countries, and the Fourteenth Amendment, which prohibited states from denying any person due process or equal protection of the laws, to be potent weapons in the federal courts.
In the middle of the book, Kingston inserts this chapter that recounts Chinese American history from the 1868 Burlingame Treaty that announces the right to citizenship for Chinese immigrants to the 1978 restrictions on the global immigration quota to the US.
ARTCILE V OF THE BURLINGAME TREATY, SIGNED IN WAHSINGTON, D.C., JULY 28, 1868, AND IN PEKING, NOVEMBER 23, 1969.
Hayes vetoed the bill on May 11 on the grounds that it violated the Burlingame Treaty of 1868, which established free immigration between the two countries.