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burn, injury resulting from exposure to heat, electricity, radiation, or caustic chemicals. Three degrees of burn are commonly recognized. In first-degree burns the outer layer of skin, called epidermis, becomes red, sensitive to the touch, and often swollen. Medical attention is not required but application of an ointment may relieve the pain. Second-degree burns are characterized by the variable destruction of epidermis and the formation of blisters; nerve endings may be exposed. The more serious cases should be seen by a physician and care should be taken to avoid infection. Local therapy includes application of a chemical such as silver nitrate to produce a soft crust, reduce the threat of infection, and relieve the pain. Third-degree burns involve destruction of the entire thickness of skin and the underlying connective tissue. In the more severe cases underlying bones are also charred. The surface area involved is more significant than the depth of the burn. Shock must be prevented or counteracted; blood transfusion may be required to replace lost body fluids. Invasion of various bacteria must be prevented or cured by administering antibiotics and other drugs. Morphine may be employed to ease pain. Long-term treatment may include transplantation of natural or artificial skin grafts.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an injury to the skin, mucosa, and underlying tissue as a result of exposure to high temperatures (thermal burns), such chemicals as concentrated acids and caustic bases (chemical burns), electric current (electric burns), and ionizing radiation (radiation burns). The severity of the injury is determined by the depth and extent of the burn.

In 1960, Soviet medicine adopted the classification of burns that is based on the determination of the depth of pathological changes in the tissues. According to this classification, first-degree burns are accompanied by redness and edema; second-degree, by the formation of blisters; third-degree, by dry or colliquative necrosis of the skin with liquefaction of dead tissues; and fourth-degree, by charring of the skin and the underlying tissues—fatty tissue, fascia, muscle, and bone. The area of a burn can be determined by several methods, including the use of tables, formulas, and simple measurement with the palm of the hand. (The area covered by an outstretched hand is roughly equivalent to 1–1.2 percent of the surface area of the body.) A first-degree burn is usually considered life-threatening if it covers 50 percent of the body; second-degree, more than 30 percent; and third-degree, about 30 percent. With superficial first- and second-degree burns that cover more than 20 percent of the body, burn syndrome arises. This is characterized by four stages: shock; acute toxemia, in which the body is poisoned by microbial toxins and the products of tissue breakdown; septicemia, in which suppuration arises; and convalescence, or recovery.

First aid procedures for first- and second-degree burns involve eliminating the source of the burn, warming the body and taking other measures to prevent shock, applying dry, sterile dressings (in cases of extensive burns, wrapping with a clean sheet), and transporting the victim to a hospital or clinic.

In chemical burns, the rapid reaction between acids and tissue proteins results in coagulation necrosis and formation of a solid dry crust. First aid consists of copious washing with tapwater and subsequent application of a 2-percent sodium carbonate solution. Caustic bases cause colliquative necroses that dissolve the surface layers of the skin and form a soft, loose crust. After copious washing with water, pads soaked in mild solutions of weak acids, for example, a 2-percent solution of acetic or boric acid or 0.5-percent solution of citric acid, are applied to the affected area. In burns of the esophagus and stomach caused by the ingestion of bases or vinegar essence, the victim must drink large quantities of milk or water and receive antidotes. Chemical burns of the eyes require flushing with water. In all cases, the victims must be promptly brought to a hospital or clinic.

In the hospital, tetanus antitoxin and toxoid are administered, the skin around the burn is treated with alcohol, and a dry dressing is applied. Local burns are treated by the closed method, which involves the application of dressings impregnated with antibacterial ointments; in some cases, the exposure method is used. Deep burns require an operation called dermoplasty to close the skin lesion. The general treatment involves blood transfusion, infusion of blood substitutes, infusion of serum from patients who are recovering from burns, oxygen therapy, and the use of antibiotics, antihistamines, and vitamins. The victim should be kept on a high-calorie, protein-rich diet. Aseptic procedures must be observed. The linen should be frequently changed and the patient’s room should be well ventilated. Prevention of bedsores and other complications is essential.


Ar’ev, T. Ia. Ozhogi i otmorozheniia. Leningrad, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


To consume fuel.
An injury to tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or irradiation effects.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. an injury caused by exposure to heat, electrical, chemical, or radioactive agents. Burns are classified according to the depth of tissue affected: first-degree burn: skin surface painful and red; second-degree burn: blisters appear on the skin; third-degree burn: destruction of both epidermis and dermis
2. a hot painful sensation in a muscle, experienced during vigorous exercise
3. Austral and NZ a controlled fire to clear an area of scrub
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


To write a write-once optical medium such as a CD-R, DVD-R or BD-R disc. Such a disc is considered "burned," because once recorded, it cannot be erased and rewritten. The term is also erroneously used for rewritable disks, such as CD-RWs and DVD-RWs, but rewritable media are not "burned;" they are "written." Burn means "once and done." See CD-R, DVD-R and DVD+R. See also burn in.

A Burned Disc
You can see the "burned" part of this CD-R disc by noticing the slight change in reflectivity on the recording side. In this example, the arrow points to the end of the small recorded area, which is less than 6% of the 700MB capacity of the disc.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The burning rubber and wire drained into the sea and this could cause a potential threat to sea life."
Homeowner Walter Karpowski said he was in the home with a friend and could smell burning rubber. After he reported the odor, he received a call from his alarm company reporting a possible water problem in the home.
The thick black smoke and the smell of burning rubber polluted the environment in Al Ain city that is located just 200 metres from the UAE-Oman border.
BURNING RUBBER: Driver William, below, and the remains of his bus
Regional heats, quarter-finals and semi-finals will see participants whittled down to the UK's top 50 before the smell of burning rubber signals the start of the November finale.
After all there is no point putting yourself on show to the world and being left choking on your opponents' burning rubber.
Remember your ears buzzing on the way home, remember your face stinging from the ash, remember the smells, hot oil, burning rubber, and most of all the sweet smell of methanol, the wood spirit fuel that powered those angry rasping engines?
The crowd-pleaser then did another burnout, and the car filled with the acrid smell of burning rubber.
Yet when you've had your fill of burning rubber, the Avant is as smart and civilised a mode of executive travel you can hope for.
And a couple of crooks who seemed to enjoy diving through open car windows and burning rubber to escape were labelled the Starsky and Hutch Bandits.
Forget tearaway youths in baseball caps burning rubber, the typical speeding motorist is more likely to be their respectable middle-aged father, according to a new survey.
Two days after last week's blaze, smoke was still rising and the air smelt of burning rubber and metal.

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