scopolamine

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scopolamine

(skōpŏl`əmēn, –mĭn) or

hyoscine

(hī`əsēn', –sĭn), alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), chiefly from henbanehenbane
or black henbane,
herb (Hyoscyamus niger) native to the Mediterranean region and naturalized in parts of North America. It belongs to the family Solanaceae (nightshade family) and contains a narcotic poison (similar to that of the related belladonna)
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, Hyoscyamus niger. Structurally similar to the nerve substance acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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, scopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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 and produces symptoms typical of parasympathetic system depression: dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, and dry skin, mouth, and respiratory passages. Because scopolamine depresses the central nervous system, it is used as a sedativesedative,
any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressants of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ.
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 prior to anesthesia and as an antispasmodic in certain disorders characterized by restlessness and agitation, e.g., delirium tremens, psychosis, mania, and Parkinsonism. When combined with morphinemorphine,
principal derivative of opium, which is the juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It was first isolated from opium in 1803 by the German pharmacist F. W. A. Sertürner, who named it after Morpheus, the god of dreams.
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, the effect produced is a tranquilized state known as twilight sleep; this combination of drugs was formerly used in obstetrics but is now considered too dangerous. Overdosage of scopolamine causes delirium, delusions, paralysis, and stupor. The alkaloid is found in a variety of nonprescription sedatives.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Scopolamine

 

an alkaloid of the tropane group commonly occurring in such solanaceous plants as belladonna, henbane, and datura (mainly in the leaves). The alkaloid is also present in the rhizome of Scopolia. Scopolamine is similar to atropine in chemical properties and physiological activity. Its hydrobro-mide is used in anesthesiology; it is also an antiparkinson and cholinolytic agent. A derivative of scopolamine and camphor is included in the composition of aeron, an antiemetic.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

scopolamine

[skə′päl·ə‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
C17H21O4N An alkaloid derivative of several plants in the family Solanaceae, used as an anticholinergic drug; its hydrobromide salt is used as a sedative.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The label update is specific only to Buscopan injectionampoule and "does not involve any other Buscopan products" like Buscopan Mono, Buscopan Plus and Buscopan Venus.
Inspectors also found inmates were smoking crushed Buscopan pills as a substitute to nicotine after the smoking ban was launched last September.
Obstetricians from various parts of the world have studied the efficacy of Buscopan on cervical dilatation and found that its efficacy is comparable to other drugs for cervical dilatation.
A prisoner said many prisoners on B Wing were prescribed buscopan as part of their detoxification programme, but sold it."
A canula is once again inserted by a nurse and a muscle relaxant called Buscopan given which makes the bowel stays still during the scan.
(7) Several pharmacologic agents including hyoscine butyl bromide (buscopan), glucagon, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and papaveretum and nonmedicinal agents such as water, effervescent crystals, papain and fresh pineapple juice have been used in the treatment of esophageal food impaction with variable success rate.
"The more you eat on Christmas Day, the harder your digestive system has to work process all that food - and that means it produces excessive gas," advises Helen Bond, a consultant dietitian to Buscopan (Buscopan IBS Relief, PS3.19 for 20 tablets, Boots).
This allows injection of Buscopan, an antispasmodic drug that facilitates dilation of the bowel and reduces discomfort for the patient.
1 200 mg tds Corticosteroids Prednisone 1-2 mg/kg/day Useful for neuropathic pain, bone pain, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Clonidine 1-4 [micro]g-kg-dose 6- Caution in renal 12-hourly (useful with failure, vascular pain and anxiety) disease, depression Diazepam 1-6 years: 1 mg/day in Use for associated 2-3 divided doses anxiety and muscle spasm 6-14 years: 2-10 mg/day in 2-3 divided doses Hyoscine 1 month-2 years: 0.5 mg/ Use for colicky butylbromide kg/dose po 8-hourly abdominal pain (Buscopan) 2-5 years: 5 mg po Can cause nausea, dry 8-hourly mouth and constipation 6-12 years: 10 mg po 8-hourly Table 6.
In a recent survey by Buscopan IBS Relief of 1,000 men and women with IBS, nearly a quarter admitted they worry about it up to 10 times a day and 35% said it made them stressed.
The palliative team prescribed fentanyl, metoclopramide and buscopan. The registered nurse and I inserted this compact subcutaneous infusion into the patient's abdomen, according to the protocol.
Peristalsis was suppressed by intravenous administration of 20 mg of butylscopolamine bromide (Buscopan; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Germany).