Bushveld Complex

Bushveld Complex

[¦bu̇sh‚veld ′käm‚pleks]
In South Africa, an enormous layered intrusion, containing over half the world's platinum, chromium, vanadium, and refractory minerals.

Bushveld Complex


deposits of platinum and chromites, situated in Transvaal Province of the Republic of South Africa, on the territory of the districts of Rustenburg, Potgietersrus, Waterberg, and Lydenburg. Processing of the deposits began in 1924.

The Bushveld deposits coincide with the Precambrian Bushveld lopolith, an intruded massif with a flexure-like base, about 39, 000 sq km in area. The upper granitic zone of the lopolith is mixed with a zone of gabbro and norites, with pseudostrata of vanadistic titanomagnetitic ores. Lower, there is a sharply differentiated pseudostratified “critical” zone of pyroxenites, of anorthosites, and partly of dunites and transitional rocks carrying platinum, chrome, and nickel ores. In the lowest zone gabbro, norite, and a few pyroxenites are found. The platinum deposits of the Bushveld complex contain huge reserves of platinoides, estimated at several hundred tons. The ores in the feldspar pyroxenites of the critical zone have the greatest significance, particularly in the so-called Merenskii reef (horizon). Platinum minerals are associated with interspersions of sulfides of iron, copper, and nickel. The platinoid content of worked ores is usually 7-9 mg per kg (7-9 g per ton), although it can on rare occasions be greater than 15 mg per kg (15 g per ton).

There are deposits of another type where tube-shaped and other body forms of hortonolitic dunites cut the pyroxenites and dunites of the critical zone. Uneven, frequently high platinoid contents (3 to 19 mg per kg, or 3 to 19 g per ton), as well as the absence of chromites, are characteristic of these deposits. Two large platinum mines, the Rustenburg and the Union, are in operation. In 1966 about 25.5 tons of platinoids were obtained.

The chromium deposits of the Bushveld complex, the potential resources of which are estimated at 2 billion tons, are found in pseudostrata, persistent for considerable distances, of ingrained and massif ores, 2 cm to 2 m thick in the pyroxenites and anorthosites. They are characterized by a raised ferriferousness of the chrome spinels. The chrome-bearing belts of Rustenburg and Lydenburg are distinguished by expanses of tens of kms, with two to three ore strata in each. Figured to a depth of 150 m, the reserves are 150 million tons. The mined ore contains an average of 44 to 48 percent Cr2O3. The yearly yield is 800, 000 to 900, 000 tons. About 90 percent of the mined ore is exported, designated for chromium industries. In the Republic of South Africa the processing of ores into carbon ferrochromium has begun, basically for export.


Du Toit, A. Geologiia Iuzhnoi Afriki. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)


References in periodicals archive ?
The Vlakpoort Mine is situated on the Northern part of the western limb of the Bushveld complex in South Africa.
Platinum Group Metals announced that on March 8, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, or JOGMEC, and Hanwa signed a memorandum of understanding to transfer part of JOGMEC's interest in the Waterberg Palladium, Platinum, Gold, Rhodium, or PGM, and Copper, Nickel Project, located in the Bushveld Complex of the Republic of South Africa.
Researchers studied layers of chromite in South Africa's Bushveld Complex, where over 80% of the global resources of platinum-bearing chromite deposits can be found.
Ivanhoe Mines (TSX: IVN; OTCQX: IVPAF) is advancing three principal projects in Southern Africa: mine development at the Platreef platinum-palladium-gold-nickel-copper discovery on the Northern Limb of South Africa's Bushveld Complex, mine development and exploration at the Kamoa-Kakula Copper Project, and upgrading at the historic, high-grade Kipushi zinc-copper-silver-germanium mine on the Central African Copperbelt in the DRC.
Located on the northern limb of South Africa's Bushveld complex, Waterberg hosts a large-scale PGM resource with an attractive risk profile given its shallow nature, which will facilitate fully mechanized production.
Ironveld is the owner of an iron, vanadium and titanium project located on the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex in Limpopo Province, South Africa.
The largest and most economically important oxide layers are found in a vast layered intrusion in South Africa, known as the Bushveld Complex.
com/) Lonmin PLC , a producer of platinum group metals operating in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa, recently ended a six-week strike at Marikana last year by agreeing to pay increases for workers of 11 percent to 22 percent.
The company has copper and zinc assets in the DRC and PGM assets in the Bushveld Complex.
Mr Abraham-James is a Geologist who began his career conducting advanced exploration on South Africa's Bushveld Complex (Placer Dome).
The chromitite formations are similar to those of the UG2 horizon in the Bushveld complex of South Africa, the gold bearing mineralization associated with ultramafic intrusions are similar to the Cadillac-Larder Lake Archean gold deposits and the mineralized felsic volcanics are similar to Noranda's Horne Mine.
Kotze stated that the firm is planning to initially raise production to 240,000 ounces per annum by 2013 from the mine on the eastern part of Bushveld Complex.