a family of Arab writers and educators in Lebanon. The best-known are the following:
Butrus al-Bustani. Born 1819; died May 1883. One of the early Syrian educators. Founder of the first Syrian educational society, the Syrian Society for the Study of Sciences and Arts, in 1847. In 1863 he opened the first national school in Lebanon. During the 1860’s and 1870’s he founded several periodical publications, among them the political, literary, and scientific journal Al-Ginan (The Gardener), around which he assembled a group of journalists and writers who spread the ideas of enlightenment. He began publication of Circle of Knowledge, the first Arabic encyclopedia.
Salim al-Bustani. Born 1848; died 1884. The son of Butrus; a journalist. He was one of the earliest writers of Arab historical novels. He contributed to both Al-Ginan and the encyclopedia.
Sulayman al-Bustani. Born 1856; died 1925. A nephew of Butrus; a journalist. He translated Homer’s Iliad into Arabic and continued publication of the encyclopedia.
Butrus al-Bustani. Born 1898. Historian of Arabic civilization and literature. His works include a large series of pamphlets and Arabic Men of Literature (parts 1-4, 1948-53).
Fuad Afram al-Bustani. Born Aug. 15, 1906. Literary scholar, historian of Arabic civilization and literature, archaeologist. He was editor of the Arabic encyclopedia (six volumes published 1956-66), and rector of the National University of Lebanon (until 1971).
REFERENCESKrachkovskii, I. Iu. Izbr. soch., vol. 3. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956. Pages 27, 165-75.
Zaydan, J. Tarajim mashahir al-sharq fi al-qarn 19 (Biographies of Eminent Personalities of the Orient in the 19th Century), part 2. Cairo, 1903. Pages 24-31.
Abbud, M. Ruwwad al-nahdah al-haditha. (Pioneers of the Modern Renaissance.) Beirut, 1952.
Al-Fakhuri, Kh. Istoriia arabskoi literatury, vol. 2. Moscow, 1961. Pages 411-15. (Translated from Arabic.)
Brockelmann, C. Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, vol. 2, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1949; Supplement, vol. 2, Leiden, 1938.
I. M. SMILIANSKAIA