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saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula C4H10; colorless and odorless gases. Two isomeric butanes are known: normal, CH3CH2CH2CH3; and isobutane, Butaneswith boiling points of -0.5° C and -11° C

respectively. Mixtures of these compounds with air that contain 1.5-8.5 percent normal butane or 1.8-8.4 percent isobutane are explosive.

Sources of butanes include petroleum gases, the butane-butylene fraction of refinery gases, and natural gas. Considerable quantities of isobutane are obtained by isomerization of normal butane (in the presence of AICI3 and HCl at 90-105° C and a pressure of 1-2 meganewtons per sq m, or 10-20 kilograms-force per sq cm). Under industrial conditions, butadiene and isobutylene are obtained by dehydrogenation from normal butane and isobutane respectively. Neohexane and isooctane, valuable motor fuel additives, are synthesized from isobutane by alkylation with olefins. Butanes are also used as gas fuel when mixed with propane and other hydrocarbons.

References in periodicals archive ?
The LPG hydrocarbons - particularly the butanes and a related chemical called butene - create problems because they are reactive molecules that help form ozone, the principal component of smog.
LPG represents the biggest application of butanes and accounted for 66.
It will also serve wholesale customers in Arizona as well as offering butane blending.
Fractionation is the process of separating mixed NGLs into the component products ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane and natural gasoline.
The petrochemical industry uses ethane, propane and butanes as a raw material to produce ethylene and propylene, which are the primary building blocks to make plastics, synthetic fibers and other petrochemicals.