In contrast to this, the persistence of the following odorants, methyl butanoate
, ethyl butanoate
, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methional, hexyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, [beta]-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl cinnamate was reduced.
The semiquantification was performed using calibration curves made of 5 concentration levels (0.2-60 [micro]g of standard per vial) of 10 representative compounds for the main volatile classes in passion fruit: ethyl butanoate
, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate, ethyl crotonate, hexan-1-ol, linalool, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, limonene, [gamma]-terpinene, and decanal (Sigma-Aldrich).
In addition,hexyl hexanoate, hexyl butanoate
, ethyl butanoate
, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate
and ethyl hexanoate are the most abundant compounds found among the volatile fraction of yellow passion fruit juice (WERKHOFF et al., 1998; BRAT et al., 2000).
Considering the structural differences among the isolated casearins, we suggest that the substituent butanoate
at C-18 present in casearin J might have contributed to the higher efficacy among the four tested diterpenoids.
To simulate biodiesel combustion for method 2 we used methyl butanoate
thermodynamic data as surrogate .
The compounds were ethanol, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropylbutanoate, 1-methylbutyl propanoate, 3, 7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3-methylbutyl butanoate
, 3-methylbutyl-3-methylbutanoate, phenylmethyl propanoate, decanoic acid, 3-methylbutylhexanoate, butyl-2-butiryloxypropanoate, dodecanoic acid, and 5-pentyloxolan-2-one.
Orthonasal and retronasal thresholds for esters were twice (methyl butanoate
) to thirty times (ethyl propanoate) higher in the orange juice matrix than the published values found in water.
1563 Dehydromatricaria ester * 1563 2412 (E)-Nerolidol 1563 2032 Dendrolasin 1563 2044 Lauric acid 1568 2495 Spatulenol# 1568 2120 Geranyl butanoate
1570 1883 Caryophyllene oxide# 1572 1965 Matricaria lactone * 1578 2584 Dihydronerolidol 1580 2108 Humulene-1,2-epoxide 1580 trans-a-Bisabolene epoxide 1582 2108 NI (7), benzenemethanol, 1595 2324 [alpha]-1-octenyl-?
Gene ontology categories with a high percentage of genes more highly expressed in liver than mammary tissues included carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, glucoenogenesis, propanoate metabolism, butanoate
metabolism, electron carrier and donor activity), lipid metabolism (fatty acid oxidation, chylomicron/lipid transport, bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, steroid metabolism, ketone body formation), amino acid/nitrogen metabolism (amino acid biosynthetic process, amino acid catabolic process, urea cycle, and glutathione metabolic process), cytochrome p450, heme binding, response to xenobiotic stimulus, and blood coagulation.
In addition, they showed radical scavenging activities in DPPH assays which were attributed to the presence of high percentages of phenylpropanoids and an ester in their essential oils: myristicin (53.6%), (E)-anethole (25.0%), hexyl butanoate
(29.7%) and elemicin (41.1%), respectively .Recently, the essential oils of the fruits and aerial parts of A.
calamus were 4-terpineol, 2-allyl-5-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenol, epieudesmin, lysidine, spathulenol, borneol, furylethyl ketone, nonanoic acid, 2,2,5,5tetramethyl-3-hexanol, bornyl acetate, galgravin, retusin, (9E,12E,15E)-9,12,15-octadecatrien-l-ol, butyl butanoate
, geranyl acetate, sakuranin, acetic acid, camphor, isoelemicin, a-ursolic acid, acetophenone, dehydroabietic acid, isoeugenol methylether, apigenin 4',7-dimethyl ether, dehydrodiisoeugenol, linalool, elemicin, linolenic acid (Balakumbahan et al.