This study presents that the sensitivity of GPS PPP kinematic high-rate positioning with position domain filtering using a band-pass Butterworth filter
on small samples of position time series is enough to obtain dynamic co-seismic displacements in good agreement with SM data and produce reliable waveforms.
The type of filter used for this study was an infinite impulse response low pass Butterworth filter
of second degree.
Here, h(n) denotes the inverse Fourier transform of the Butterworth filter
H([omega]), and p(n) denotes the discrete projection series.
 Electronics Hub, Butterworth Filter
, 2015, http://www.
Caption: FIGURE 14: Comparison of Diehl's procedure and eighth order IIR Butterworth filter
with sampling rate of 100 kHz.
For example, the order of the Butterworth filter
, the length windows of the median filters, or the wavelet used for the decomposition could all be further optimized to achieve even better results.
. Butterworth filter
is the filter mostly used in nuclear medicine.
To realize a constant phase and magnitude of constant slope a Butterworth filter
Based on this, certain filters (e.g., the Butterworth filter
) have been designed to filter or pass low frequency or high frequency components of the input process to the output process.
To gain insight in the achieved size reduction, a schematic of an equivalent 14th-order Butterworth filter
has also been designed and is depicted in the bottom portion of Figure 2.
: Butterworth filters
are characterized by a magnitude response that is maximally flat in the passband and monotonic overall.